miércoles, 27 de abril de 2016

The Lost Tribes of Burma & the Book of Mormon
As manifested by the oral traditions of the North & South American native tribes, ample evidence exists that Jesus Christ visited the Nephites and Lamanites. However, do we have any evidence that Christ visited the “other sheep” that were not in the Americas or Jerusalem? (3 Nephi 16:1-3) Perhaps.
Since Christ told those He visited in the Americas about the people in Jerusalem, we could speculate that He would also have told the “other sheep” outside those two geographical areas about His “sheep” both in Jerusalem and in the Americas.
The following are direct quotaitons from Parfitt’s book:
“Western missionaries active in the country [Burma, now Myanmar] had formed the view that the Karen ethnic group was itself of Jewish extraction. This view is still held by some people and, as will be shown, has a bearing on the claims to Jewishness of many thousands of people on the Burmese-Indian border, some of whom have already emigrated to Israel. (p. 123)
“The Karens’ account of their origins— that they were from River of Running Sand—no doubt served as a springboard for all sorts of speculation. This was a people with a mysterious past. Quite clearly there were striking and seductive similarities between their legends and those of the Jewish scriptures: an example was the Karen story of creation which ‘was almost parallel to the Mosaic account in Genesis’ (p. 124-5).
“Francis Mason of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society arrived in Burma in 1814 and in time became convinced that the Karen were part of the Lost Tribes of Israel. He had certainly reached this conclusion by 1833: on 6 December of that year he announced from his headquarters in the ‘head waters of the Tenesserim’ to Mr. Maingy the British Civil Commissioner, who had requested a report on the Karen, ‘the discovery of a fragment of the descendants of the Hebrews’. ‘I sit down in the midst of the Karen jungle,’ he wrote, ‘to redeem my pledge and give you some account of the traditions existing among the Tayoy Karens.’ In a passionate letter Mason listed the traits that proved their distinguished lineage: the nature of their god Pu or Yuwah, their belief in angels and Satan, the fall of man, the dispersion of Babel, the future destruction of the world, their love of God, their tradition of being a wandering people, their freedom from idolatry and so on. ‘There can scarcely be a rational doubt that the Yuwah of the Karens is the Jehovah of the Hebrews---from the foregoing I am constrained to believe the Karens to be descendents of the Hebrews. Look at them, sir; is not the Jew written in their countenance?’ (p. 125)
“Above all, it was the cult of the high god Yuwah or Ywa, reminiscent of the Hebrew YHWH, which excited Christians and later Jews and inspired them with the certainty that here must be some long-lost relic of the ancient religion of the Hebrews--- According to Father Plaisant, the early Baptist missionaries had got it about right: Yuwah created the earth, he made man and all living creatures, he was omniscient, omnipotent, perfect and eternal. According to the priest, in the days after the creation Yuwah set aside the ‘book of gold’ for the Karen, who failed to come and get it. It was therefore entrusted to his younger ‘white brother’. ‘Therefore---the latter obligingly built a boat for Ywa and transported him across the ocean, whence Ywa ascended to heaven. In their sacred songs, the Karen look forward to the return of the White Brother and their book, as well as to the advent of Ywa.”
Karen Copper Plate
If there were copper plates, why not gold plates or brass plates
In 1872, Alonzo Bunker published a brief report “On a Karen Inscription-Plate” in the Journal of the American Oriental Society10 (1872 – 1880): 172-176, in which he included the following drawings of the inscriptions on the front and back of the copper plate. The inscription could not be read, but was thought to recount the founding of the Karen nation of northeast India or to establish the claims to power of its king.

Palm branch (symbol)
The palm branch is a symbol of victory, triumph, peace and eternal life originating in the ancient Near East and Mediterranean world. The palm (Phoenix) was sacred in Mesopotamian religions, and in ancient Egypt represented immortality. In Judaism, a closed frond of the date palm is part of the festival of Sukkot. A palm branch was awarded to victorious athletes in ancient Greece, and a palm frond or the tree itself is one of the most common attributes of Victory personified in ancient Rome.
In Christianity, the palm branch is associated particularly with Palm Sunday, when according to Christian tradition palm branches were waved at the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem. It was adopted into Christian iconography to represent the victory of martyrs, or the victory of the spirit over the flesh.
Since a victory signals an end to a conflict or competition, the palm developed into a symbol of peace, a meaning it can have in Islam, where it is often associated with Paradise.
The palm appears on several flags or seals representing countries or other places, with the coconut palm associated with the tropics.
In Assyrian religion, the palm is one of the trees identified as the Sacred Tree connecting heaven, represented by the crown of the tree, and earth, the base of the trunk. Reliefs from the 9th century BC show winged genii holding palm fronds in the presence of the Sacred Tree. It is associated with the goddess Ishtar and is found on the Ishtar Gate. In ancient Mesopotamia, the date palm may have represented fertility in humans. The Mesopotamian goddess Inanna, who had a part in the sacred marriage ritual, was believed to make the dates abundant. Palm stems represented long life to the Ancient Egyptians, and the god Huh was often shown holding a palm stem in one or both hands. The palm was carried in Egyptian funeral processions to represent eternal life. The Kingdom of Nri (Igbo) used the omu, a tender palm frond, to sacralize and restrain.
Apollo holding a laurel branch and libation bowl, next to a palm that represents his birth on Delos (Comacchio Painter, ca. 450 BC)
The palm was a symbol of Phoenicia and appeared on Punic coins. In ancient Greek, the word for palm, phoinix, was thought to be related to the ethnonym.
In Archaic Greece, the palm tree was a sacred sign of Apollo, who had been born under a palm on the island of Delos. The palm thus became an icon of the Delian League. In recognition of the alliance, Cimon of Athens erected a bronze statue of a palm tree at Delphi as part of a victory monument commemorating the Battle of the Eurymedon (469/466 BC). In addition to representing the victorious League, the bronze palm (phoinix) was a visual pun on the defeated Phoenician fleet.
From 400 BC onward, a palm branch was awarded to the victor in athletic contests, and the practice was brought to Rome around 293 BC.
Victorious charioteer holding a palm branch on a Roman mosaic
The palm became so closely associated with victory in ancient Roman culture that the Latin word palma could be used as a metonym for "victory", and was a sign of any kind of victory. A lawyer who won his case in the forum would decorate his front door with palm leaves. The palm branch or tree became a regular attribute of the goddess Victory, and when Julius Caesar secured his rise to sole power with a victory at Pharsalus, a palm tree was supposed to have sprung up miraculously at the Temple of Nike, the Greek counterpart of Victory, in Tralles, later known as Caesarea, in Asia Minor. The toga palmata was a toga ornamented with a palm motif; it was worn to celebrate a military triumph only by those who had a previous triumph. The toga itself was the garment of the civilian at peace, and was worn by the triumphator to mark his laying down of arms and the cessation of war. The use of the palm in this setting indicates how the original meaning of "victory" shaded into "peace" as the aftermath of victory.
Coins issued under Constantine I, the first Christian emperor, and his successors continue to display the traditional iconography of Victory, but often combined with Christian symbolism such as christograms. The Roman senator Symmachus, who tried to preserve Rome's religious traditions under Christian domination, is pictured on an ivory diptych bearing a palm branch in an allegorical triumph over death.
Poseidon holding a palm branch on the reverse of a tetradrachm of Antimachus I Theos, king of Bactria (2nd century BC)
In Judaism, the date palm (Lulav) is one of the Four Species used in the daily prayers on the feast of Sukkot. It is bound together with the hadass (myrtle), and aravah (willow). The Midrash notes that the binding of the Four Species symbolizes the desire to unite the four "types" of Jews in service of God.
The Tosher Rebbe of Montreal, Canada waving the Four Species during Hallel
During the Roman Empire, the date palm represented Judaea and its fecundity to both Romans and Jews. Roman sources praise the date as the produce of the province. The date palm was a frequent image for Judaea on Imperial coinage, most notably on the Iudaea Capta series, when the typical military trophy is replaced by the palm. The palm appears also on at least one Hasmonean coin and on coinage issued in 38–39 AD by Herod Antipas. Palm ornaments are found also on Jewish ossuaries.
In 1965, Judean date palm seeds dated at around 2000 years old were recovered during excavations at Herod the Great's palace on Masada in Israel. In 2005, some of the seeds were planted. One grew and has been nicknamed "Methuselah".
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem on a mosaic from Palermo, ca. 1150
In contemporary Christianity, the palm branches carried on Palm Sunday originate in the triumphal entry of Christ into Jerusalem. Early Christians used the palm branch to symbolize the victory of the faithful over enemies of the soul, as in the Palm Sunday festival celebrating the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem. In western Christian art, martyrs were often shown holding a palm frond as an attribute, representing the victory of spirit over flesh, and it was widely believed that a picture of a palm on a tomb meant that a martyr was buried there.
Palms carried on Palm Sunday, 2011, at Sanok, Poland
Origen calls the palm (In Joan, XXXI) the symbol of victory in that war waged by the spirit against the flesh. In this sense it was especially applicable to martyrs, the victors par excellence over the spiritual foes of mankind; hence the frequent occurrence in the Acts of the martyrs of such expressions as "he received the palm of martyrdom." On 10 April 1688 it was decided by the Congregation of Rites that the palm when found depicted on catacomb tombs was to be regarded as a proof that a martyr had been interred there. Subsequently this opinion was acknowledged by Mabillon, Muratori, Benedict XIV and others to be untenable; further investigation showed that the palm was represented not only on tombs of the post-persecution era, but even on tombs of those who did not practice Christianity.
The general significance of the palm on early Christian monuments is slightly modified according to its association with other symbols (e.g., with the monogram of Christ, the Ichthus (Fish), or the Good Shepherd). On some later monuments the palm was represented merely as an ornament separating two scenes. Palms also represented heaven, evidenced by ancient art often depicting Jesus in heaven among palms.
Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg (1492). The Duke chose a palm as his personal symbol in commemoration of his pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1468 when he became a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre.
San Pedro Mártir, in the church of Santo Domingo Díaz Ordaz, Oaxaca, Mexico
In the Middle Ages, pilgrims to the Holy Land would bring back palms for deposit at their home churches. Crusaders would carry or wear an image of one, seen today in the Christian Order of the Holy Sepulchre, which still awards a Palm of Jerusalem decoration.
The palm is richly significant in Islamic culture, and the palm symbolizes rest and hospitality in many cultures of the Middle East. The presence of palm trees around an oasis showed that water was the gift of Allah. In the Quran, the palm appears in the paradisical imagery of the Garden (Jannah). In one prophetic tradition, the Dome of the Rock will stand on a palm tree issuing from one of the rivers of Paradise.
A Palm Tree (1717) by the Ottoman illustrator Muhammad ibn Muhammad Shakir Ruzmah-'i Nathani
Muhammad is said to have built his home out of palm, to have leaned against a palm while speaking, and to have raised the first mosque as a roof placed on palm trees.
The first muezzin climbed palm trees to call the faithful to prayer, from which the minaret developed. In the Quran (19:16–34), Mary is said to have given birth to Jesus under a date palm.
In northern Sudan, the doum palm is the symbol of endurance (doum), and particularly of the Muslim saint who gave his name to Wad Hamid. The palm also appears on a number of coins from Islamic states, for example the 1970 Tunisian 1 dinar issue honoring the Food and Agricultural Organization, and several Iraqi coins of the 1970s.

In Malay final k and initial h are almost inaudible. Daya is a word from Hebrew roots which means bird of prey. This could also be the origin of the Dayak'

The Ainu and Maori share many similarities in their history and culture, and recently efforts have been made for these peoples to learn from one another. Those motifs are similar also to those found among the fishing communities in Eastern Canada, Labrador and Greenland.

Refugees from the Plains in Europe and China
It is so with the central parts of the world's continents, that they gradually become still more dry and desert-like.
The sea people attacked Egypt around 1200 BC -Egyptian stone carving.
Thousands of years ago, there were lakes and rivers on locations in the Sahara dessert, where no one can survive today. Rock Paintings show pictures of deer and humans. Each year, the desert is expanding to the south and north.
Central Asia was greener in the distant past, than it is today. Ruins of the lost cities in the current Chinese province of Xin Jiang can today be found far out in the Taklamakan desert, where not a blade of green grass can be eyed for miles.
This climatic deterioration may have progressed mainly gradually, but also sometimes more dramatically.
Some years have brought drought disasters, which may have forced exposed people to leave their ancient land.
On the African continent the Bantus migrated from their original homeland, around roughly the northern Cameroon, as the desert expanded. They populated most of Africa.
Stone carving representing giraffe in the desert of Niger.
Ruined city in the desert near Turfan in the chinese province Xin Jiang.
On the Eurasian plains many of the Indo-European peoples chose to go for a future elsewhere on the continent, as the climate deteriorated. One by one they arrived in Europe or China.
About 100 AC a people landed on the shores of the eastern coast of the Danish island of Funen. They were beaten in battle, probably by the local Heruls, and their equipment and weapons were sacrificed to the victor's gods by being immersed in the holy lake, Vimose. It must have been such an Indo-European people from the heart of Eurasia, who had chosen to seek their fortune elsewhere.
Nobody knows the name of the defeated people; they may never have been registered in the history. After the defeat, the survivors possibly continued to Norway. There are made findings, which resemble those from Vimose.
Among their equipment was a small comb using a cross with antique hooks, a symbol of Central Asia, a very old symbol, possibly a symbol of the sun. The ancient Swastika still has a Buddhist significance in Asia, it symbolizes the eternal alternation between death and reborn. The picture shows a similar comb from Nydam.
In the Taklamakan Desert of the modern Chinese province of Xin Jiang swastika motifs also have been found, that are assumed to be of Indo-European origin.
Left: Comb from the Nydam Boat 200 - 400 AC with carved swastika. Mid: The - Budha found in the Oseberg Ship in Norway 200 - 400 AC. Right: Svastika motif found in the Taklamakan desert in Central Asia.
About 300 to 450 AC the climatic situation on the great plains of Eurasia for one reason or another may had become particularly bad. The plains must have become almost uninhabitable. Refugees streamed across the border into north China and into the Roman Empire in Europe. A people named Sava in the present southern Afghanistan and Iran went to India.
Left: Budha med svastika i et tempel i en kinesisk landsby nær Dalian. Mid: Gandhara Buddha found in an iron age grave from Helgø in Sweden. Right: Myklebostad Buddha from viking age found at Myklebostad in Norway.
HH Lamb writes in his "Climate History and the Modern World": "Through the centuries, in Roman times from about 150 BC to 300 AC or a few decades later, camel caravans traveled along the great Silk Road through Asia to trade in luxury goods from China. But from the fourth century AC, as we know from the changes in water levels in the Caspian Sea and studies of irregularities in rivers, lakes and abandoned cities in Sinkiang and Central Asia, drought developed to such an extent that it stopped the traffic on that route. Other serious stages of this drought occurred between 300 AC and 800 AC, and especially around these dates as it can be seen from the old coastlines and ancient port structures near the big lakes, which indicates a very low water levels in the Caspian Sea around these times."
Just About 300 AC China had problems with refugees from the plains. "The five Hu" people from the north, Xiong Nu, Xianbei, Di, Qiang and Jie, sought refuge in the Middle Empire behind the Great Wall. The mandarins ordered them to return to their homelands, they answered back with force and created their own migration states.
This began the period in Chinese history known as "The Sixteen States". (About 300 AC to 400 AC)
In the year 410 AC king Alaric and his Visigoths
Xiong Nu - the Huns - attack China.
In the same way as the migration peoples of Europe admired the Roman Empire and the Emperor, so admired the newly arrived peoples in China the Emperor and the Chinese culture. They named their new states after famous dynasties from the past, the Kingdom of Han, the Kingdom of Qin, the Kingdom of Xia and so on. The newcomers quickly learned Chinese culture and language. Their noble and royal families married into Chinese families.
It is noted in the history that in the year of 317 AC millions of northern Chinese migrated to south China, allegedly because of the invasion from the plains. A new Jin Dynasty was proclaimed in Nanjing. Entire clans of northern Chinese fled to the south, along with 60 to 70 percent of the nobility. Complete Daoist monasteries moved to the south with all the monks and religious leaders. 
In Europe the Ostro-Goths and the Visi-Goths left their old land on the Eurasian plains and aimed for a new land and a new life in Western Europe. The Vandals began the migration time by crossing the frozen river Rhine on New Year's Eve 406 AC.
Parts of the Xiong Nu people chose to find their way from Asia along the Silk Road to Europe. In Europe they were called by their real name, as they called themselves, "the Huns".
Peoples migration states in China about 400 AC.
Peoples migration states in Europe in 476 AC.
Also the Indo-European peoples left their old land on the Eurasian plains and sought a new future in the west. They were among other names called "Alans" and "White Huns". Also some Indo-European peoples sought refuge and survival to the East, in China.
H. H. Lamb skriver in "Climate History and the Modern World", page 150: "These extreme winters are usually, as the progress in the disastrous wet years in the 580's (AC) in Europe, considered as isolated events, so therefore there is not considered development any significantly colder climatic regime at any time during the millennium, we look at. Recent studies in the Alps, especially by Ruthlisberger and Schneebeli from Geographical Institute at Zurich University and in Norway and northern Sweden by Vibjørn Karlen, suggest that this view needs revision. Carbon 14 analysis of the end moraines of the ancient glaciers in the bottom of the valley of Val de Bagneres in southwestern Switzerland, reveal the locations that were reached by the glaciers, as they came down from the heights before and after 600-700 AC and perhaps again as late as 850 AC, as it is recorded as the well known "Little Ice Age" period between 1550 and 1850 AC.
Density of growth rings in larch trees at Zermat in the Alps - from Climate History and the Modern World by H. H. Lamb.
These glaciers cut clearly an ancient Roman route across the mountains from Italy, which passes down through this valley. Further, studies of growth rings on larch trees that grew near the upper tree line near Zermatt indicate, what appears to be a gradual building up heat in the century of 300 (AC) followed by a fairly sharp variation between 400 and 415 AC and a significant cold period thereafter. Therefore, if this dating is dependable, the Roman administration was facing further difficulties in addition to the growing threat from the barbaric migrations at the time, when the Western empire collapsed."
The very fact that the Vandals crossed the frozen Rhine in 406 AC, suggests that it has been a very cold period. I do not recall, that the Rhine has been frozen in recent years. Perhaps the problem on the Plains was as in Mongolia and Siberia in the winter of 2001, large amounts of snow, and freezing temperatures down to minus 40 or more. It was too cold for the cattle, which died in large numbers.
Ruins of the kingdom of Loulan at the shore of the now vanished salty lake Lop Nor in the Taklamakan desert of Chinese Xin Jiang.
The Asian ancestors of the modern Danes were also such an Indo-European people among many, who in the beginning of the first millennium chose to seek new land in Europe.
Our ancient poem, "Ragnarok", says: "Tell about Ragnarok - about that great news are to bring up. The first is, that the Fimbul Winter is coming. Then the snow will be drifting from all sides. There will be a lot of frost and biting winds. The sun does not work. There will be three such winters after each other without summers in between." It sounds, as if our ancestors had experience of that such thing can happen.
The Indo-Europeans were not driven away from the great plains by new and tougher peoples. The Mongols, the Turks, the Kirgizs and the Manchus first showed up from the big Siberian freezer more than hundred years after the beginning of the time of the big migrations. At that time the climate there again had eased, and the Eurasian plains were green, empty and inviting.
When the Turkish peoples took possession of the practically uninhabitated plains in the years of 500-600 AC, they were met with very little resistance, and therefore they could populate the plains in a very short span of years.
Ellsworth Huntington -1876-1947. 
Growth rings in tree trunk.
Ellsworth Huntington (1876 -1947) was professor in geography in the American Yale University. He took part in several expeditions to Central Asia and Palestine.
His main work is the book "The Pulse of Asia", where he wrote: "The relapse of Europe in the Dark Ages - was apparently due to a rapid change of climate in Asia and probably all over the world, - a change which caused vast areas which were habitable at the time of Christ to become uninhabitable a few centuries later. The barbarian inhabitants were forced to migrate, and their migrations were the dominant factor in the history of the known world for centuries.
We in present time shall do well to ascertain whether we are facing the problems, which the Romans did.
The data, which I obtained in Central Asia - confirm the surmise of the historians. There is a strong reason to believe that during the last two thousand years there has been a widespread and pronounced tendency toward aridity.
Result of ice-core drilling from the Greenland ice cap - Camp Century.
In dryer regions the extent of land available for pasturage and cultivation has been seriously curtailed; and the habitability of the country has decreased. -After a period of rapidly decreasing rainfall and rising temperature during the early centuries of the Christian era, there is evidence of a slight reversal, and of a tendency toward more abundant rainfall and lower temperature during the Middle Ages.
In relatively dry regions increasing aridity is a dire calamity, giving rise to famine and distress. These in turn are causes of wars and migrations, which engender the fall of dynasties and empires, the rise of new nations, and the growth of new civilizations."
Ellsworth Huntington measured growth-rings on the big old trees in the U.S. national parks to find evidence for his theory of cyclical climate changes as key drivers of history.
Graph showing temperature in the Sargasso Sea as function of time.
Unfortunately, his results were not convincing related to the Migration Age and the Germanic peoples invasion of the Roman Empire around 400 AC.
However Greenland ice-core drillings seem to show a temperature minimum in the fifth century.
Also the temperature in the Sargasso Sea was very low in the years 400 to 500 AC.
A group of scientists has concluded that the surface temperature of the Farewell Lake, in Alaska during the Roman Warm Period (0-300 AC) was as high as today, but that it nevertheless fell steadily by a total of 3.5 degrees and reached a minimum in 600 AC.
Cross section of stalactit from the Soreq Cave near Jerusalem.
Geologists from the University of Wisconsin have analyzed a stalactit from the Soreq Cave near Jerusalem and concluded that the climate was drier in the Eastern Mediterranean area between 100 AC and 700 AC, with marked decreases in rainfall around 100 AC and 400 AC.
But whatever the scientific climate data for the time of the migrations, then it cannot be that whole peoples break up with wives, children, domestic animals and all their belongings from their ancient land, without having very compelling reasons to do so.
Logically, it must have been a matter of life or death, otherwise sane people do not do such thing.

The New Whites - Xianbei
Xianbei was a group of tribes, who lived on the Eastern Steppe, roughly described in the present Inner Mongolia reaching out in East and West. Here they had lived "always", or at least long before rise of written history.
The best known of the Xianbei peoples were the Xianbei-Tuoba tribe. They had their name after their sacred royal lineage, Tuoba. Following modern rules of pronunciation it must be pronounced something like "Tor-bar", and I think, it means the descendants after "Tor". (yes, & bar is an Aramaic word meaning son & Tor could also be the Israelite Law or Torah). 
In China's early history all the peoples onthe plains were labeled as "-rong", which means something like barbarians or natives. During the Qin dynasty (221 BC- 206BC) and early Han Dynasty, most of peoples of the steppe were categorized as Xiongnu. Only after collapse of the the Xiongnu federation the Xianbei tribes appeared in the history under their separate names.
Typical Xianbei art - Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Museum.
In the year 48AC the before so mighty Xiong federation split up into two groups, the southern and the northern Xiongnu. An officer of the Han court named Zang Gong suggested that China should take advantage of the situation, ally with Xianbei and attack Xiongnu; but Emperor Guang Wu-di rejected firmly further acts of war.
The chinese characters for Xianbei says "BaiLu", which literally means fresh new thieves. It cannot be a name that they called themselves. At the same time it sounds very much like "Xinbai", which means "new whites".
Modern Chinese humor runs very much on expressions, which sound like each other, but have different meanings. It must be something that the language's character invites. Maybe some witty heads back then named the new barbarians of the steppe "Fresh thieves", which also sounded as "New whites", a double meaning that they found interesting.
Bodisatva with blond hair and blue eyes from Dunhuang cave 57 -or is it a queen?
Types from Mogave Caves at Dun Huang - the Northern Wei period. Some tough men, were they kings?
The "Xianbei" tribes are interesting for Danes, because both "Qi Dan" and "Dan-Xiang" (The Chinese prefer the alphabetizing "Dang-Xiang") claimed that they descended from "Xianbei", and both these people called themselves for something with "Dan".
The Northern Wei empire was a migratory state, ruled by a branch of Xianbei people. Their sacred royal family was the Tuobas. They seem to have been the royal family superior to all others. The kings of Qi Dan as well of Dan(g) Xiang (Tangut) claimed both that they descended from Tuoba. These kingdoms emerged several hundred years after the doom of the Northern Wei empire; here one can realy talk about "The return of the king". The Tuoba royal lineage must have had a simply enormous prestige.
Many nations' history-interested "make claim" on the Xianbei tribes. Chinese literature refers routinely to them as a typical Mongoloid people. Koreans have no doubt that the Xianbe was a Tungusic people, like they think about themselves. Turkish history enthusiasts call them often as a "proto-Turkish", "proto" as they have a timeline problem, all without existence of real arguments that support such claims. All parties label routinely the Xianbei's kings as khan, although this is a Turkish title, which was not invented before after several hundred years.
But there are many indications that Xianbei was a non-Mongolian people with white skin and often with blond or reddish hair.
The debate on Xianbei's ethnic origin is a fierce debate with political overtones that have been going on for years. The idea that possible Indo-European peoples (Iranian speaking Israelites) have had their root within the borders of modern China is causing a very considerable emotional resistance.
Basicly the statements about Xianbei's respectively Mongolian or Tungusic origin are simply repeated many times, as it was a self evident truth, but with few and insignificant real evidence. Since it seems to be politically correct in both East and West, it has gradually won an image of truth.
Supporters of Xianbei's Mongolian origin bring forward to know that the Xianbei's descendants, the Qi-Dans, mobilized their troops in 6Smilitary units called "Ordo". Mongolian has a word with the same significance, "Ordu", for example in "The Golden Horde" and other of Genghis Khan's armies. The word is found in Danish and English as "Horde," but they think it comes from Mongolian. Therefore, since Xianbei's descendants used a word, which the Mongols also used, they must have been of Mongolian ethnic origin, the supporters of the theory conclude.
But this evidence is worth nothing, and it proves indeed the opposite.
The Americans were the first to drill for oil off shore, they gave names to "derrick", "casing", "christmas tree" and "spot cans". "Their successors the British, Norwegians and Danes simply took over the terminology, which allready existed in the industry.
Warrior figure from Northern Dynasty Tomb - Unearthed in Cixian - he looks like a viking, who had lost his way, but however he is 500 years too early.
The Indo-Europeans were the first to develop mounted warfare on the steppe, and they developed the associated terminology. They invented the concept of "horde" originaly "orde" as the name for a military formation. When the Mongols and Turks much later took possesion af the steppe and picked up mounted warfare, they simply took over the terminology that already existed.
Danish is an ancient Indo-European language that still contains many words beginning with "or-", which denotes various military activities. Just try opening a Danish computer dictionary, type "or-" and see what comes up.
A blond steppe warrior displays his trained horse - cave painting from Dunhuang.
"Orlog" refers to naval warfare. "Orlov" is a leave from military units. An "Ordonans" is a military messenger. "Ordre" is a military command. "Orden" is the opposite of sloppiness and disorder, which typically must prevail in an army. "Orden" is also military decoration of honor. "Orke" is to perform strenuous efforts, as it is often the case in war.
The basic word "horde" or "orde" can be recognized in modern Danish in that meaning of "orden" as the word for an organization, such as a knightly order, the order of the Knights Templar, the Johanitter Knights order and so on. Such military designations are in relatively recent times replaced by terms such as "regiment", "arme" and "batallion" and therefore the meaning of horde has been degraded to describe a spontaneous, primitive and aggressive group.
Column Foundations from the Tuoba capital Luoyang with two dwarfs indicating each corner of the world.
Luoyang was the capital of Northern Wei, which was a Tuoba Xianbei state. Here is a pillar foundation with two dwarfs indicating each corner of the world. It brings one to think about the dwarf list in the Voelves Divination, verses 11-13 of the Elder Edda, where the dwarves Nordri and Sudri, Austr and Vestri, are named after the corners of the compass - or maybe it's the compass directions, which have been named after the dwarfs. The idea, that a dwarf should indicate a compass direction, is so unique that there must be a connection.
The arguments for Xianbei should be of Tungusic ethnic origin are equally unconvincing.
Some believe to have reconstructed a group of words from the now extinct Xianbei language, which shows that it belongs to the Tungusic language family.
Now, the fact is that everything passed on from Xianbei comes from Chinese sources, and Chinese characters say, as you well know, nothing about the pronunciation. It is hard to see how such a reconstruction has taken place. Xiabei's Tungusic origin is mentioned in many places as a matter of course, but nowhere gives any clue about the nature of such a reconstruction. It may not be something, which is particularly obvious or scientific.
The Dunhuang documents, P. 1283 (in Tibetan) tell of the Qi Dan people's language: "In the language they (Qi Dan) and Tuyuhun broadly could communicate with each other". So we can imagine that the two languages relate to each other such as Danish and Swedish. Tuyuhun was a branch of Murong Xianbei and Qi Dan descended from Tuoba Xianbei. This indicates that the Xianbei tribes of the migration age, living in general in present Inner Mongolia, mainly spoke the same language. The Xianbei peoples created Wei Dynasty and many other migratory states. Sui and Tang Dynasty originated from Xianbei peoples, who had accepted Chinese culture. Their language, whatever it was, must necessarily have had a markedly influence on the development of the Chinese language.
A strong man with big blue eyes, big nose and in general caucasian features - Sculpture from the caves at Dunhuang. 
Now it is like this that strikingly many words in Danish and Chinese sound similar to each others having similar meanings.
This again indicates that some of the ancestors of modern Danes, perhaps the Aesirs, who came from Asia, had a common origin with the Xianbei tribes.
In "Han Shu" the scholar Yan Shigu (581-645) added a Comment on how the Wusun people looked like: "Wusun in the Western Areas are the same as the Rong people (old term for native tribes around China). Now a days, these "Hu" people have green eyes, red beard, their appearance is as bearded monkeys, and they are originally of this nature." ("Hu" means Caucasian features like deep set eyes, big nose, beard etc.).
Yan Shigu worked at the court of the first Tang ruler Li Shimi. He wrote commentary in both "Han Shu" and "Shi Ji". He lived in a very turbulent period. The dominant Xianbei State "Northern Wei" had been split into the Eastern Wei and Western Wei, who in turn evolved into the Northern Qi and Northern Zhou. The Northern Zhou proclaimed themselves as Sui Dynasty and claimed the power of the whole China. The new dynasty, however, quickly perished because of the peasant revolts and civil war. However on its ruins Li Shimi erected the famous Tang Dynasty on the political foundation of coalitions with the tribes on the steppe, especially with many Xianbei tribes and states.
Yan Shigu's comment is not only a statement about the distant Wusun people, it is also a statement about the "Hu" people who surrounded him. It was undoubtedly the always rivalizing Xianbei peoples, he had in mind, when he wrote: "Now a days, these "Hu" people have green eyes, red beard, their appearance is like bearded monkeys".
The document "Zhi Zhi Tong Jian" (it means "Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government) was presented to the Emperor during the Song Dynasty by Sima Guang (1019 - 1086). He had spent eighteen years composing it. Here is told a story that the Emperor of the Dynasty "Eastern Jin", Jin Ming Di (Sima Shao 323 to 326 AC) had yellow hair and beard, because his mother was a Xianbei. Once he unannounced went out to inspect his troops. However, because of the color of his hair, his soldiers believed, he was a Xianbei and chased him as an enemy.
Folk songs from back then sounded: "Huang tou Xianbei", which means: "Xianbei have yellow head."
How did the Xianbei Peoples look like?
Statue in Luoyang with high sharp nose.  
Small figure which represent a Xianbei soldier with deepset eyes and big nose. Treasures of ancient China Exhibition - Found in Jing County, Hebei Province, 1948.
Among the Xianbei peoples, and also at their descendants the Qi-Dans, women were quite equal with men. They rode horses and used bow and arrow just as good as men, an old poem says. Also during the following Tang Dynasty, women could do much the same as men. However, there were severe punishments for adultery as in olden Israel. 
It is known that the Tang Dynasty had a rather full woman ideal, and that women also played polo. Only during the following ethnic Chinese Song Dynasty developed the extremely slim ideal woman with elegant small feet.
In Tuoba Xianbei's old capital of Luoyang are a few statues with fairly high nose bridge among the statues and figures, which have been preserved to our time. Most of the other surviving figures are either of a neutral ethnic appearance or with a modern Asian look.

domingo, 24 de abril de 2016

Central Asian Israelites

The Xiongnu have the same DNA as the Scottish & Finnish...U5a1a.

The Israelites of the steppes, of the high lands of Asia & their possible relatives

"Manasseh (and Ephraim) was born in Egypt and oral tradition states a Kyrgyz tribe came from Egypt".

Both Jews & Tajiks were active on the Silk Road about a thousand years ago.

Central Asia was part of the Iranian (Persian/Farsi) cultural/ethnic area, together with the Caucasian area & Persia proper/core area. The Jews & Israelites of the area are Bukharans, Mountain Jews, Gruzis, Tats, Armenians, Georgians, Tajikis, Azeris, Ossetians... respectively. Eventually part of Caucasia & most of Central Asia became Turkified except for the Jews & some of the Israelites.

Tartaria is were scythia was. 

In Turkestan children of Moses prefer being called Moussai.

The dromedary is also called Arabian camel or Indian camel. Bactrian Camels as distinct from Arabian camels that have only one hump. 

As Joseph J. Williams puts it his Hebrewisms of West Africa: a strong influx of Hebrew culture may have traced well beyond the Dnieper (Tartaria...) into the very heart of Mongolia itself. Something that the Mongols, at least the Khalka tribes, have in common with the Israelites is that they had thirteen tribes. There were 12 Israelite tribes that inherited land. If you add Levi they are 13 tribes.

Kipchaks, their offspring & related ethnicities

Seems like there are connexions between Asia & Africa. Apart from the ones that I mentioned in other ocasions I would like to mention a few. Northeastern Nigeria has a language & people called KaNuri. KaNauri is a Tibetan language spoken in Himachal Pradesh, India. The CaNary Islands were called CaNarii in olden times. The Canary Islands are an archipelago of northafrican islands belonging to Spain & their ancestors, the Guanches, were Berbers. Coming back to the KaNuri Nigerians, their state is called Borno, which is almost the same as the Asiatic osland of Borneo. This island has clear connections with the Karens, another Israelite people. Keren is a very similar word in Hebrew meaning horn & a toponym of Manasseh, so the Karen might be Manassehites. Not by chance the Israelite neighbors Kukichins are mostly Manassehites & Ephraimites in a lesser number. The Kanuris Nigerian-Cameroonians are considered to be Israelites by some people. The KaNauri (KaNor, KiNnauri, KuNawur, KuNawar), languages are spoken in Himachal Pradesh, India. KaNor, an alternative name for KaNauri is  very similar to KaNo, a northern Nigerian city. The prefix KaN might be a short way for CaNaan, the ancient name of the Holy Land, therefore the connexion might be their common Israelite origin. The KuNar language is spoken in the neighboring area by some Pashtuns. Kashmiri, another Israelite neighboring people, is also part of this group of langauges. KuNar is also an Afghan district relatively close to Himachal Pradesh, India & it's mainly populated by Pashtuns. The KuNara Khel or KaNera Khel are a Baloch tribe, sub tribe of Azam Khel clan. As I have said a zillionth times the Baluch might be Israelites, at least several of their clans that are clearly related to Pathans. KuNming, Yunnan, China, was the pass of some Israelites from Kaifeng to Indochina. It's noteworthy that KuNming starts with mentioned CaNaanite prefix.

KaNauj, the Indian district were many people consider the Gypsies (Also believed to be Israelites) to come from, is also close to the mentioned Indian areas & has the KaN prefix. There's an ethnic group also in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, a state disputed with China. They are 20,000 people, but only 11,000 speak the language known as Pattani (also known as Manchati, Manchad, Patni, Chamba, Chamba Lahuli, Lahuli, Swangla, Changsapa Boli. It's a Tibeto-Burman language (Sino-Tibetan stock) spoken in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The language is spoken in the Lahul Valley, Pattan, Chamba-Lahul, and lower Mayar valleys. We will see later on that Chamba might be an Israelite name.). The Pathans or pashtuns are considered by most experts to be part of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. There are some isolated groups (Considered to be Lost Israelites, although not widely agreed upon) in Indonesia. There are several other Israelite groups (widely recognized as such) in India (Bagdadi Jews, Judeo-Telugus...), in the Indo-Myanmaran border (Chinkukis or Kukichins), Myanmar (Karens, Chinkukis & possibly Shans), Thailand (Karens)...

Once I theorized about Israelites, the Pathans going to Indonesia & leaving smaller groups of people on their way. I also suggested that the people of the Thai Pattani area would be the offspring of a group of Pathans that named Pattani after themselves. Now I add the speakers of Pattani language as offspring of Pashtuns, therefore Israelites. Pattani is a language related to the Chinkuki language whose speakers are Israelites so the Pattani speakers could be the link between the Pathans (Israelites) & the Chinkukis (Israelites as well). So the speakers of Pattani would be Israelites too. Another interesting detail is that the district of Chamba (in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Weere the Pattanis & their related Chamba Lahulis live) ) is bordering the Israelite state of Kashmir, India.

There are a couple of cities called Chamba in western Iran, area of dwelling of the captive Israelites. It's also noteworthy that Chamba is the name of a people in Nigeria, not very far from the Igbos (a people widely as Israelites). There is another ethnic group which is Bedouin with the name Chaamba as well. They have been categorized at some moment as Berbers, but they are usually regarded as Arab Bedouins. Historically Berbers & Jews have intermingled highly. The Bedouins in the Sinai peninsula (They're not always regarded as Israelites.), Israel & surroundings are regarded as having Israelite origin. Nowadays there are many Berber ethnic groups with Jewish or Israelite origin (Iberogens, Iddaosahaks...), so it wouldn't be surprising to find that the Chamba Bedouins (neighbors of Berbers) inspite being Arab lost their Jewish identity. Yemenis are supposedly Arabs, but their genes say other wise (That they are Jews). I insist a lot on this topic because Yemen used to be a Jewish kingdom like Khazaria, that atracted lot of Israelites from then long but also before officialising Judaism. The thing doesn't end here because there's people living in southern Indochina (Vietnam & Cambodia mostly) called Cham, but their ancient kingdom (One of the most celebrated Kingdoms of Indochina) that they created was called Champa. So it's likely that the kingdom that they created was called after their name, something that happens usually. Champa is indeed the same as Chamba because p & b are letters with almost the same sounds. There's also an Albanian ethnic group with the name Chamba & as the scholars affirm, that area of the BaLCaNs (or their people) is related to the Pashtuns & the Albanians themselves are believed to have Israelite roots. The Cham language of Indochina is a Malayo-Polynesian language so it's connected to the Australasians of Indonesia, West Timor, Madagascar, Hawaii..., several of whom are considered to be Israelites. The names Himachal & Himalaya are very similar to Hima, an African tribe related to the Tutsis. Both of these Africaan Groups are considered to be Israelites. As I have pointed out  in other chances, the Himalaya & surroundings have quite many Israelite or related names. Most Asian Israelites live close by or trace their history to the Himalaya. If there'ss a point on earth close to heaven in distance is the Himalayan Mountains. Was this why they went upthere? As I suggested once Lhasa, the Tibetan capital, could have been founded by Israelites after the ancient Israelite town of Lasha, also known as Laish. There's an Himalayan mountain called Jiuding (I suggested to derive from Judah) next to the Chiangs (Tibetan Israelites) considered to them as a sacred mountain likewise ancient Israel wit mount Horeb or other mountains. Another mountaain on the Himalaya is called Nun Kun. Obviously Nun Kun is named after its two peaks: Kun & Nun. Kun could come from Canaan. In Hebrew, Arabic & other languages vowels are not very important. These two peaks lye on the Indian Kashmir. There's a town closeby called Leh, almost Leah, one of Israel's main wives Many have pointed before the large amount of Israelite names in Kashmir. Nun is the very name of Joshua's (The prophet that brought Israel back to Canaan through the Jordan river. God worked again the miracle of separating the waters as the Israelites crossed.) father.

The Kipchaks were Turkic speakers related to the Cumans. They created the celebrated Golden Horde. They are said to have Caucasian features, albeit some had Mongoloid ones. They are also considered to have Scythian origin as some Afghans, Pakistanis & Indians. According to Two-Housers the Scythians were Israelites that lost their identity & were also ancestors of several western European nations. Part of the Ashkenazi Jews are considered to come from the Kipchaks & the Khazars. Karachays, Balkars, Kumyks, Karaims (Crimean Karaites), Krymchaks are peoples considered to have Jewish origin & they still speak Kipchak dialects. Because the Kipchaks spoke Turkish languages they have been bracketed as Turks as in the the case of part of the Ashkenazis. I believe they were really Israelites that spoke Turkish languages as the Pathans changed their native Aramaic for Indoeuropean Pashto. I also believe that the western Europeans speak Indo-European languages with Semitic traces of Hebrew & Aramean of their ancestors.

Nephtali or Naphtali was one of Israel's sons. His Children were the Nephtalites or Naphtalites. Centuries after their captivity by the Assyrians, a group of them formed an empire in Central Asia. They were known as Ephtalites, Hephtalites or Hephtalites. A group of them was known as Abdal or Abdali, both names being other deformed variants of the same name. Nepal was not far away from theese Israelite empire. Several Lost Israelites have been found not far from Nepal (Qiangs, Pashtuns, Kalash...), so the name "Nepal" or "Nepali" might be an Israelite one, but a deformed variant of "Nephtali". That doesn't necessarily mean Nepalis are Israelites, but that Nepal might have been after a group of them. In fact the name "Nepal" is supposed to have a meaning in Sanskrit, but it's obscure & not sure. There was a Lasha / Laish in olden Israel & there's a "Lhasa" in neigboring Tibet. There are several Israelite & possibly Israelite names in the area after all.

As other Israelites, they gave great importance to owning horses & sheep, they made mounds & they were great bowmen. It's interesting that the Cumans were called KuN in Hungarian, a name that I already related to CaNaan. They were called the "Blond Ones", a feature very among Turks in those days. They were saaid to haave desirable women. A group of Cumans went to Hungary & integrated in the Hungarian society & some of the Cumans became the Hungarian monarchy. Eventually the Cuman minority integrated in the Hungarian society inspite having such a different look from the rest of Hungarians. There's some Cuman offspring among Bulgarian & Romanian people. And the Cumans are related to the Finnish (Considered as part of the Israelite offspring by the British Israelites), Komis & TurksThe first dynasty of Mamluks in Egypt were Kipchaks/Cumans. There were Kipchaks also as mercenaries supporting the Europeans in the Crussades & the Georgians. Some of the descendents of the Kipchaks are considered to have Israelite origin, for example the Karachays, the Kumyks... The Kipchaks had some Hebrew influence through the Khazars. Kipchak was the lingua franca in the Eurasian Steppe, but this doesn't mean that it was their original language. The Kharchin Mongols are a group of about 600,000 people living mainly in Chinese controlled areas close to Mongolia, as well as in the Republic of Mongolia in a tiny amount. They are considered to be the offspring of Kipchaks that served under the northern Yuan, a Mongol dynasty in China. It's interesting that one of their dwelling areas is called Ju Uda city. Did they come from the Israelite tribe of Judah? Maybe part of them did. There was a Japanese emperor called Uda & the Japanese, or part, especially their monarchy are widely recognized as coming from Israelites. A Russian town in Siberia (inhabited by many Uralic-Altaic speakers), not far from China's People's Republic & Mongolia is also called Uda. The former Mongolian Josotu League (Joseph's League?) was divided in the three current Chinese provinces: Liaoning, Hebei & Inner Mongolia. In them there are about 700,000 Mongolians of which the majority are Kharchins.

I wonder if the great importance given by the Mongols to the flags was received by Israelites (The tribes of Israel were using flags, as commanded from the Lord, as early as in the time of Exodus. I'm not saying necessarily that they were, thru God's inspiration, inventors of flags, by they were a very flag loving people.) they encountered in the steppes, they Israelite pockets that were dwelling among themselves, or both. The Chiangs, a Tibetan people of Israelite origin, also givee a great importance to flags, planting 12 in remembrance of 12 ancestors which are clearly the patriarchs of the 12 tribes of Israel according to many scholars. There are several toponyms with the name Kipchak, Qipçaq, or Qepchaq in the following countries: Azerbaijan, Iran & Turkmenistan. The Kypchak empire, also known as Golden Horde, was very large after all. The Kipchaks were invaded by the Mongols to have the Kharchins (The Kipchaks that went to the China of the Yuan Mongols) counted as part of them in the future. Eventually they mingled with ethnic Mongols having as a result more Mongolian looking Kharchins. There's an ethnic group called kachin related to the Shinlungs.

They might be the descendants of Kharchins, because of the similitude of names, the relation with the Israelite Shinlungs, a people that was once was in China as well to move eventually to India. So I would say that kachins are Israelites. The Kachins are also known as Jingpo, Singpho... There's a lake in the Chinese province of Heilongjiang called Jingpo so I assume they named it. This reinforces the connections with the Mongols because this province was originally inhabited by them. The names kachin & Kharchin might be the origin of Kukichin. Some scholars believe that the Kharchins came, at least partly, from Khalaj, in the historical region of Khorasan. It's an interesting point 'cause Khorasan was anciently called Arachosia & it was one of the areas of captivity of the Israelites. The name Sharnuud, found among the Kharchins, is considered by scholars to have a non-Mongol origin but a Caucasian. Moreover the are said to have had "yellow eyes". The Kharchins were followed by the Alans & other Kipchaks to serve the Yuan Mongols in Peking. Certain excavations in Ukraine connect the Khazars with the Scythians, Sarmatians & Kipchaks. 

Before in the text I have pointed at topnyms that might have the prefix KaN of CaNaan, pointing at an origin in the Holy Land, but I would like to add: KaNawha (River in the USA), KaNsas, arKaNsas, KaNpur (Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh), KaNdahar (Pashtunistan), CaNada, KaNnada language (Indian state of Karnataka, but spoken in other parts of southern India by the KaNnadigas, also called KaNnadas. They are considered as related to Yadavas, a people that I suggested to come from Judah. SaKaleshpura is one of the regions of the KaNnadas & bear the name of the SaKas, considered to be Israelites. One of the martial arts is called Yuddha, similar to Judah.).

Tatar & Mongolian Israelites?


The Tatars (Old Turkic tatar; modern Volga Tatar: Татарлар, Tatarlar تاتارلار ), historically Tartars, is an umbrella term for Turkic peoples in the territory of the former Russian Empire (and as such generally includes all Northwestern Turkic speaking peoples).

The Tatars were the Turkic-speaking population of Tartary, the lands ruled by Turco-Mongol elites from the 14th century until the conquests of the Russian Empire in the 18th to 19th centuries. During the early modern period, a distinction was made between the European and Asian Tatar territories, by referring to Lesser Tartary and Greater Tartary, respectively.

The largest group by far descending from the historical Tatars are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region (Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as "Tatars", and their language as Tatar language. Their number is estimated as close to 6 million (as of 2002). Besides the Volga Tatars, there are smaller groups also descended from the historical Tatars, the largest group of these being the Crimean Tatars, numbering close to half a million, whose Crimean Tatar language is not now intelligible with the Volga Tatar language.

As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, and the invaders of Rus and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars (see Tatar yoke). After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became especially identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde.

The various Tatar khanates of the early modern period are the remnants after the breakup of the Golden Horde, and its successor, the Great Horde. These include: the Khanate of Kazan (1438), conquered by the Tsardom of Russia in 1552, but continued as a Russian vassal state, within the Qasim Khanate (established 1452), until 1681. the Nogai Horde (1440s), conquered by Russia in 1634.the Khanate of Crimea (1441), conquered by the Russian Empire in 1783. the Kazakh Khanate (1456), gradual Russian conquest in the 18th century, but finally absorbed into the Russian Empire only in 1847. the Khanate of Astrakhan (1466), conquered by Russia in 1556. the Tyumen Khanate (1468, later Khanate of Sibir), conquered by the Tsardom of Russia in 1598.

The Turco-Mongol dominance in Central Asia was absolute during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Crimean-Nogai raids into Russia were especially for the capture of slaves, most of whom were exported to the Ottoman Empire. The raids were an important drain of the human and economic resources of both countries. They largely prevented the settlement of the "Wild Fields" – the steppe and forest-steppe land that extends from a hundred or so miles south of Moscow to the Black Sea. The raids were also important in the development of the Cossacks.

The end of absolute Tatar dominance comes in the late 15th century, heralded by the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. The 16th to 18th centuries are characterized by the gradual expansion of Russia and absorption of the Tatar khanates into Russian territory. The Crimean Tatars attacked Russia in 1507, followed by two centuries of Russo-Crimean Wars for the Volga basin. Similarly, the Russo-Kazan Wars lasted for the best part of a century and ended with the Russian conquest of the Kazan khanate.

The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions.

It became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Crimean, Astrakhan, Qasim, and Siberian Khanates.

All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar (as a Russian exonym). Some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not.

Kipchak groups

Kipchak–Bulgar branch, or "Tatar" in the narrow sense. Volga Tatars, the largest group which still uses the Tatar designation, although a minority adheres to "Bulgarism", preferring a self-designation of "Bulgar" over "Tatar". Astrakhan Tatars were formerly the Lipka Tatars, now mostly assimilated to Polish or Belarusians. Finnish Tatars. Chinese Tatars. Bashkirs. Kipchak–Cuman branch. Crimean Tatars (historically Kipchak–Cuman, but strongly assimilated to Oghuz Turkish). Karachays and Balkars - Mountain Tatars. Kumyks - Daghestan Tatars. Kipchak–Nogai branch: Nogais - Nogai. Tatars, includes the Karagash subgroup of Nogais - Kundrov. Tatars. Karakalpaks. Kazakhs. Kyrgyz. Siberian Turkic branch:

Siberian Tatars

Altay people - Altay Tatars, including the Tubalar or Chernevo Tatars Chulyms or Chulym Tatars, still use the Tatar designation. Khakas people - Yenisei Tatars (also Abakan Tatars or Achin Tatars), still use the Tatar designation. Shors - Kuznetsk Tatars

Oghuz branch

Azerbaijani people - Caucasus Tatars (also Transcaucasia Tatars or Azerbaijan Tatars)

The appellation Tatar was also extended to other, non Turkic peoples, especially the Tungusic peoples of Siberia. The descendants of Tatars in Eastern Europe have partly lost their Turkic languages due to cultural assimilation, but may still retain a "Tatar" identity.

Kipchak languages

Tatar language and Crimean Tatar language

The Tatar language together with the Bashkir language forms the Kypchak-Bolgar (also "Uralo-Caspian") group within the Kypchak languages, also known as Northwestern Turkic.

There are three Tatar dialects: Eastern, Central, Western. The Western dialect (Misher) is spoken mostly by Mishärs, the Central dialect is spoken by Kazan and Astrakhan Tatars, and the Eastern (Sibir) dialect is spoken by Siberian Tatars in western Siberia. All three dialects have subdialects. Central Tatar is the base of literary Tatar.

It's believed that the Tartar tribe named Chosan had Israelite origin. I pointed out the possibility that the Tatars  could be Lost Israelites. They practiced circumcision & other Israelite traditions. Chosan is repeted as a toponym in North & South Korea. Is it a rest of the lost Israelites that thru Korea ended up in Japan?

Could the Mongols be Lost Israelites?

During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Jews emerged as economic rivals. This led to
blood-libels, fear and disgust, and imaginary tales about Jews poisoning wells. The Talmud was burned in Paris in 1242. In this atmosphere of constant insecurity and hatred the Jews in Europe looked for salvation. As the Jewish year 5000 approached some Jews in Europe hoped that the year of their redemption might be at hand.

What was the basis for their hope? In part, the symbolism of a millennial year had its attraction, but in addition they saw salvation in the approaching armies of the Mongol hords out of the steppes of Asia. These hords were vanquishing the armies of chrisendom to the east. A rumor had spread among Christians that the Mongols were Israelites, or had Israelite components. To the Jews in Europe, at this time, this rumor seemed like a blessing... Could it be that the great Genghis Khan, or his successor, could be their sought for redeemer, appearing on their millennium? Such a thought may sound absurd now - to us. Nevertheless, the events that time led Jews to hope that the Mongols might be their liberators.

The Book of Ezekiel – Gog from Magog
Perhaps the strangest and most apocalyptic verses in the Tanach are found in chapters 38 and 39 of the Book of Ezekiel. Gog is represented as a prince from the nation of Magog, and head of an alliance of nations who will one day descend from the far north on horses to invade Israel.Ezekiel 38:15.

Israel is portrayed as prosperous, peaceful --- but defenseless. The hords will seek to plunder the land, but their aims will be thwarted by a series of natural and human events that will completely destroy them without harm to Israel, and without any effort by Israel. Since this prophecy has not yet been fulfilled this passage in Ezekiel is considered Messianic.

For Jews living at the time of Ezekiel (about the 6th century B.C.E.), in Babylonia, and hoping for redemption to Israel this prophecy had an immediacy since it addressed the fears that the early Zionists had. The return to Israel was seen as dangerous, because they would be defenseless. Ezekiel was telling them that even their enemies would perish if they tried to harm Israel. Interestingly, a portion of this prophecy concerning Gog from Magog is read on an intermediary Shabbat during Sukkot. It is during Sukkot that Jews are most vulnerable to attack, because they are living outside their houses in a defenseless booth. At such a time it is comforting to think they need not worry about the forces of Gog.

These passages from the Book of Ezekiel have also attracted interest in Christianity. We find mention of Gog and Magog (now apparently interpreted as two separate nations) in the Book of Revelation, 20:7-10: When the thousand years are over, Satan will be let loose from his dungeon; And he will come out to seduce the nations, in the four quarters of the earth and to muster them for battle, yes the hosts of Gog and Magog…, But fire came down on them; and the Devil, their seducer, was flung into the lake of fire and sulphur, where the beast and the false prophet had been flung, there to be tormented day and night for ever.

In Christianity the evil forces of Gog and Magog would manifest themselves in the Armageddon, the last great battle, and the final uprising of evil, that clears the way for the final millennium (Haggith, 1999, p. 404). The evil nations of Gog and Magog were to play an important role in Christian thinking throughout the middle ages, perhaps because of the constant threat in the Middle-East and in Europe of invading forces from the far north, on horses, who would bring destruction in their path. Christians associated the description in Ezekiel with the nomads of the steppes of Asia. But who was Gog from Magog? Where exactly is Magog? Since the identification of Magog in Ezekiel is vague much is open to speculation. Throughout history, perhaps beginning with the writings of Josephus, an effort was made to identify Gog and Magog. The Writings of Josephus.

Zebulonites in Ukraine, Japan, China, Mongolia & Myanmar?

The last name Helon renders Gelon, sometimes Gelen in the Ukrainian language and Hoelun/Hulun in the Mongolian language. Helon is a Jewish last name. In the Bible Helon (or Elon) was an Israelite from the tribe of Zebulun.

Hulun may refer to:

Hulun Buir, city in Inner Mongolia, China
Lake Hulun, lake in Inner Mongolia, China

Hulun (alliance)
Hūlun (Chinese: 扈倫) was a powerful alliance of Jurchen (Manchu) tribes in the late 16th century, based primarily in what is today Jilin province of China.

The Hūlun alliance was formed by Wan (d. 1582), the leader of the Hada tribal federation, which had drawn its importance from the control of commerce included three other tribal federations, known as Ula, Yehe, and Hoifa (any relation with the Israelite, city of Haifa?). In the late 16th century, was based primarily in what is today Jilin province.  of China.

The Hada tribe of Japan is believed to come originally from China. Hata is another form for Hada. In China, Manchuria is the closest area from Japan. Perhaps this Hata Manchurians were the ancestors of the Japanese Hatas. Interestingly the Israelite tribe of Zebulun is prominent in Japan.

The Scythian capital city was named Helon. Nowadays the remains are at Belsk: Kotelva district, Poltava, Ukraine. There was a Scythian clan called Helon Scythians. Interestingly the Scythians are considered Israelites by many scholars. In Bhamo District, Kachin State, Burma [Myanmar],  there is a town called Helon.

The Mongols:  Genghis Khan

Mongol Israelites?

The tents were made by means of poles set in a circle in the ground, and brought nearly together at the top, so as to form a frame similar to that of an Indian wigwam. It's interesting that the Mongol yurts were pulled by oxen, the animals representative of the 12 Israelite Tribes, the number 24 being the number of two oxen per tribe. Using two oxen is a prescribed law in the Torah. The Mongols were good archers as the Amerindians, Scythians & English were & good horsemen like the Spaniards, Arabs, American cowboys, Mexican charros, Argentinian gauchos...

These movable houses were sometimes very large.  A certain traveler who visited the country not far from the time of Genghis Khan says that he saw one of these structures in motion which was thirty feet in diameter. It was drawn by twenty-two oxen.  It was so large that it extended five feet on each side beyond the wheels.  The oxen, in drawing it, were not attached, as with us, to the centre of the forward axle-tree, but to the ends of the axle-trees, which projected beyond the wheels on each side.  There were eleven oxen on each side drawing upon the axle-trees.  There were, of course, many drivers.  The one who was chief in command stood in the door of the tent or house which looked forward, and there, with many loud shouts and flourishing gesticulations, issued his orders to the oxen and to the other men.

The Monguls, like the ancient Jews, were divided into tribes, and these were subdivided into families; a family meaning in this connection not one household, but a large congeries of households, including all those that were of known relationship to each other.  These groups of relatives had each its head, and the tribe to which they pertained had also its general head.  There were, it is said, three sets of these tribes, forming three grand divisions of the Mongul people, each of which was ruled by its own khan; and then, to complete the system, there was the grand khan, who ruled over all.

 If they were repulsed, and compelled by a superior force to retreat, they would gallop at full speed over the plains, turning at the same time in their saddles, and shooting at their pursuers with their arrows as coolly, and with as correct an aim, almost, as if they were still.  While thus retreating the trooper would guide and control his horse by his voice, and by the pressure of his heels upon his sides, so as to have both his arms free for fighting his pursuers.

These arrows were very formidable weapons, it is said.  One of the travelers who visited the country in those days says that they could be shot with so much force as to pierce the body of a man entirely through.

Bokhara was a great and beautiful city.  It was situated in the midst of a very fine and fertile country, in a position very favorable for the trade and commerce of those days.  It was also a great seat of learning and of the arts and sciences.  It contained many institutions in which were taught such arts and sciences as were then cultivated, and students resorted to it from all the portions of Western Asia.

The city proper was inclosed with a strong wall.  Besides this there was an outer wall, thirty miles in circumference, which inclosed the suburbs of the town, and also a beautiful region of parks and gardens, which contained the public places of amusement and the villas of the wealthy inhabitants. It was this peaceful seat of industry and wealth that Genghis Khan, with his hordes of ruthless barbarians, was coming now to sack and plunder.

The first city which the Monguls reached on their march toward Bokhara was one named Zarnuk.  In approaching it a large troop rode up toward the walls, uttering terrific shouts and outcries.  The people shut the gates in great terror.  Genghis Khan, however, sent an officer to them to say that it was useless for them to attempt to resist him, and to advise them to surrender at once.  They must demolish their citadel, he said, and send out all the young and able-bodied men to Genghis Khan.  The officer advised them, too, to send out presents to Genghis Khan as an additional means of propitiating him and inducing him to spare the town.

The inhabitants yielded to this advice. The gates were thrown open. All the young men who were capable of bearing arms were marshaled and marched out to the Mongul camp.  They were accompanied by the older men among the inhabitants, who took with them the best that the town contained, for presents. Genghis Khan accepted the presents, ordered the young men to be enrolled in his army, and then, dismissing the older ones in peace, he resumed his march and went on his way.

Samarcand itself, as has already been said, was a great and splendid city. Like most of the other cities, it was inclosed in a double wall, though, in this case, the outer wall surrounded the whole city, while the inner one inclosed the mosque, the palace of the sultan, and some other public buildings. These walls were much better built and more strongly fortified than those of Bokhara. There were twelve iron gates, it is said, in the outer wall. These gates were a league apart from each other.  At every two leagues along the wall was a fort capable of containing a large body of men. The walls were likewise strengthened with battlements and towers, in which the men could fight under shelter, and they were surrounded by a broad and deep ditch, to prevent an enemy from approaching too near to them, in order to undermine them or batter them down.

The city was abundantly supplied with water by means of hydraulic constructions as perfect and complete as could be made in those days. The water was brought by leaden pipes from a stream which came down from the mountains at some distance from the town.  It was conveyed by these pipes to every part of the town, and was distributed freely, so that every great street had a little current of water running through it, and every house a fountain in the court or garden.  Besides this, in a public square or park there was a mound where the water was made to spout up in the centre, and then flow down in little rivulets and cascades on every side.

The gates and towers which have been described were in the outer wall, and beyond them, in the environs, were a great many fields, gardens, orchards, and beautifully-cultivated grounds, which produced fruits of all sorts, that were sent by the merchants into all the neighboring countries. At a little distance the town was almost entirely concealed from view by these gardens and orchards, there being nothing to be seen but minarets, and some of the loftier roofs of the houses, rising above the tops of the trees.

The opinions which Genghis Khan entertained on religious subjects appear from a conversation which he held at one time during the course of his campaigns in Western Asia with some learned Mohammedan doctors at Bokhara, which was the great seat at that time of science and philosophy.  He asked the doctors what were the principles of their religion. They replied that these principles consisted of five fundamental points: 1. In believing in one God, the creator of all things, and the supreme ruler and governor of the universe. 2. In giving one fortieth part of their yearly income or gains to the poor. 3. In praying to God five times every day. 4. In setting apart one month in each year for fasting. 5. In making a pilgrimage to the temple in Mecca, there to worship God.

Genghis Khan told them that he believed himself in the first of these articles, and he approved of the three succeeding ones.  It was very well, he said, to give one fortieth of one's income to the poor, and to pray to God five times a day, and to set apart a month in the year for a fast.  But as to the last article, he could not but dissent from it entirely, for the whole world was God's house, and it was ridiculous, he said, to imagine that one place could really be any more fitting than another as a place for worshiping him.

Who are the White Huns? 

During the 5th century, the Gupta dynasty in India reigned in the Ganges basin with the Kushan empire occupied the area along the Indus. Huns invaded India. This is the saying that goes on in History, let us analyse the facts.

White Huns The paucity of record in Hephthalites or Ephthalites provides us fragmentary picture of their civilization and empire. Their background is uncertain. They probably stemmed from a combination of the Tarim basin peoples and the Yueh-chih. There is a striking resemblance in the deformed heads of the early Yueh-chih and Hephthalite kings on their coinage. According to Procopius's History of the Wars, written in the mid 6th century - the Hephthalites "are of the stock of the Huns in fact as well as in name: however they do not mingle with any of the Huns known to us. They are the only ones among the Huns who have white bodies...." Ephthalites was the name given by Byzantine historians and Hayathelaites by the Persian historian Mirkhond, and sometimes Ye-tai or Hua by Chinese historians. They are also known as the White Huns, different from the Hun who led by Attila invading the Roman Empire. They are described as a kindred steppe people originally occupied the pasture-lands in the Altai mountain of southwestern Mongolia.

Toward the middle of the 5th century, they expanded westward probably because of the pressure from the Juan-juan, a powerful nomadic tribe in Mongolia. Within decades, they became a great power in the Oxus basin and the most serious enemy of the Persian empire.

The Westward Expansion and War with Sassanian Empire At the time when the Hephthalites gained power, Kushan and Gandhara were ruled by the Kidarites, a local dynisty of Hun or Chionites tribe. The Hephthalites entered Kabul and overthrew Kushan. The last Kidarites fled to Gandhara and settled at Peshawar. Around 440 the Hephthalites further took Sogdian (Samarkand) and then Balkh and Bactria. The Hephthalites moved closer and closer toward Persian territory. In 484 the Hephthalite chief Akhshunwar led his army attacked the Sassanian King Peroz (459-484) and the king was defeated and killed in Khurasan. After the victory, the Hephthalite empire extended to Merv and Herat, which had been the regions of the Sassanid Empire.

The Hephthalites, at the time, became the superpower of the Middle Asia. They not only destroyed part of Sassanian Empire in Iran but also intervened in their dynastic struggles when the Sassanid royal, Kavad (488-496), was fighting for the throne with Balash, brother of Peroz. Kavad married the niece of the Hephthalites chief and the Hephthalites aided him to regain his crown in 498AD.

The Eastward Expansion to the Tarim Basin With the stabilization at the western border, the Hephthalites extended their influence to the northwest into the Tarim Basin. From 493 to 556 A.D., they invaded Khotan, Kashgar, Kocho, and Karashahr. The relationship with Juan-juan and China were tightened. The Chinese record indicated that between 507 and 531, the Hephthalites sent thirteen embassies to Northern Wei (439-534) by the king named Ye-dai-yi-li-tuo.

Invasion to India

During the 5th century, the Gupta dynasty in India reigned in the Ganges basin with the Kushan empire occupied the area along the Indus.

Huna in Sanskrit

India knew the Hephthalite as Huna by the Sanskrit name. The Hephthaltes or Hunas waited till 470 rigth after the death of Gupta ruler, Skandagupta (455-470), and entered the Inda from the Kabul valley after the conquest of Kushan. They kept on invading India until skandagupta repulsed them. After their defeat they assimilated into indian population without any trace, which show they are not very different from the local population.

Pahua, Hua , Hun?

Japanese researcher Kazuo Enoki takes on the theories of both the ancient and the modern writers, including the redoubtable Stein, knocking the legs out from one after another. Theories which are based on coincidence of name, e.g. Pahua and Hua, are unlikely in this part of the world which exhibits so many languages and so much linguistic adaptation and orthographic variation, he points out, and should not be upheld if other sorts of evidence do not support the reasoning. Stein's contention that the Ephthalites were of the Hunnish tribe and therefore of Turkish origin is dismissed largely on this basis. On the other hand, J. Marquart finds similarities between the terms for the Ephthalites in India and words in the Mongolian language, but this theory requires so many leaps between tongues that it remains quite unconvincing. Finally, there is a whole school of researchers attempting to prove this tribe a Turkish, albeit non-Hun, one. These too must rely only on flimsy name evidence. Instead, Enoki makes a convincing case that the Ephthalites are actually an Iranian group. His theory, it must be admitted, does not explain all, but there seems little against it. More importantly, it relies first on data which is generally agreed upon, namely, ancient observations of Ephthalite geographical movements and culture.


Ephthalite origins may be determined by considering where they were not, as well as by where their conquests drove their enemies. They were not previously north of the Tien Shan, thus they did not stem from that region. They drove the Kidarites out of Balkh to the west, thus they came originally from the east. By such reasoning, the Ephthalites are thought to have originated at Hsi-mo-ta-lo (southwest of Badakhshan and near the Hindu Kush), which tantalizingly, stands for Himtala, "snow plain", which may be the Sanskritized form of Hephthal.

Chinese Account

To the Chinese, they were the Ye-ti-i-li-do or Yeda, even though the Chinese chroniclers seem to realize that the people called themselves the people of Hua (the similarity to Hun may help explain the origin of "White Hun") and that the Chinese terms came actually from the name of the Hua leader. Like Procopius, contemporary Chinese chroniclers had their own theories about Ephthalite origins. One thought that were related in some way to the Visha (Indo-Europeans known to the Chinese as the "Yueh Chih" (Yuezhi)), another, a branch of the Kao-ch`ê, a third, descendants of the general Pahua, a fourth descendants of Kang Chu and a fifth admits that he cannot make clear their origins at all.

Iranian Decent

Turning to the elements of Ephthalite culture, Enoki notes that Procopius' comments on their appearance while not decisive, are in favor of an Iranian theory. Similarly, the seventh century travels of Hsuan Chwang show that he found no physical difference between the descendants of the Ephthalites and their known Iranian neighbors. As for their language, commentators made clear that it was neither Turkish nor Mongol, which also seems to support an Iranian origin.

Iranian customs also are common in the Ephthalite world. For example, the practice of several husbands to one wife, or polyandry, was always the rule, which is agreed on by all commentators. That this was plain was evidenced by the custom among the women of wearing a hat containing a number of horns, one for each of the subsequent husbands, all of whom were also brothers to the husband. Indeed, if a husband had no natural brothers, he would adopt another man to be his brother so that he would be allowed to marry. Conjugal rights were traded off and children were assigned in turn with the oldest husband receiving the first and so on. Tellingly, polyandry has never been associated with any Hun tribe, but is known of several Central Asian ones.

In their religious beliefs, the Ephthalites are said to have worshipped fire and sun gods. While either one is not unusual in any early culture around the world, both together is likely to indicate a Persian origin. In Persia, such beliefs were later to culminate in Zoroastrianism.

As part of their religious observance, the Ephthalites did not cremate, but as is reported by all commentators including Procopius, always buried their dead, either by constructing a tomb or under the ground. This is not consistent with the Zoroastrian practice of leaving the body in the open, but is clearly at odds with Turkish nomadic groups. The practice of inhumation then may simply indicate an Iranian group which had been sundered from the main branch at an early date and had adopted local Central Asian burial customs.

Arabic persian Accounts

Arabic/Persian name for the Hephtalites/Ephtalites was Haytal or Hayatila, and they are so mentioned by Firdausi in his Shahnameh. In his commentary on the Hudud al Alam, the late Russian Professor Minorsky quotes two early passages from Arab chroniclers that link the Khalaj with the Hayatilas aka Ephtalites.

From the Mafatih al Ulum of Al-Khwarezmi written in 975 AD (H. 365): The Hayatila are a tribe of men who had enjoyed grandeur and possessed the country of Tukharistan; the Turks called Khalukh, or Khalaj, are their descendants.

From the Kitab al Masalik of Istakhri, written in 933 AD (H. 321): The Khalaj are a kind of Turks who in the days of old came to the country between Hind and the districts of Sijistan (Sakastan/Sistan) behind Ghor. They are catle-breeders of Turkish apperance, dress, language.

Takharistan is what is now north-eastern Afghansitan, around Baghlan. Takharistan was actually one of the major strongholds of the Hephtalites during their dominant period in history, so it correlates well to the 2 passages above. Both passages take the Khalaj back some five centuries before the Ghuzz migrations, making their ancestors the White Huns.

As their empire shows, the central focal spot of their empire is the Hindu Kush. Regardless of their origins, by the end of the 6th century AD, there emerges a group of tribes with an Iranian background and language, but not fire worshippers, rather sun worshippers, made up of successive hordes overlaid at the last by a Hunnish conquest, and with a centre of historical attraction towards the Gandhara Valley.

So white Huns are of Decendents of Iranian and Central Asian tribe ,and they are noway connected with Huns of Attila fame. Probably they are just Indian tribe on the periphery in Afghanisthan

Let us see other Huns

European Huns

In 370, nomads arrived nroth of the Black Sea. These nomads were given the name "Huns" by Greco-Roman historians. One theory for the origin of these people is that in 160, Fragments of the Xiong Nu settle around the Ural sea for 200 years, before moving west. However, association of the Xiong Nu and the Huns is now more of a "classic speculation" without enough evidence. Most realistically, the Huns in Europe could've contained some fragments of the Xiong Nu, but also fragments of other steppe groups, along with more local european barbarians. In any case, the Huns moved and destroyed the cultures north of the Pontus including the Sarmatians and the Goths. The Goths then migrated into the Eastern Roman empire, who after rebelling against the Empire, defeated the Romans at Adrianople. The Hun gradually expanded their realms incorporating many local barbarian groups. The height of the empire marked the Reign of Attila, who made repeated invasion against the Romans. Although the Huns did not penetrate very deeply compared to other barbarians, they were instrumental in causing migrations of other barbarians against Rome. After Attila died, the empire rapidly fell apart. Germanic tribes rebelled and defeated Attila's sons, forcing whatever was of the Huns to move back into the steppes, where they faced away.

Red Huns (Chionites)

In 350, the Chionites came to power in Sogdia and invaded the Sassanid Empire of Persia. Latin sources relate them to "Huns" but ethnical relations is far beyond what names can say. Most probable, they were driven out of the Mongolian Steppes by the Juan Juan. (this pattern of groups migrating away from strong nomadic empires is a constant theme in history) The Chionites declined with the Invasion of the White Huns. The last record of Chionites was in 558 AD, when their last remnant was destroyed by the Western Turks.

Xionites, Chionites, or Chionitae (Middle Persian: Xiyon; Avestan: Xiiaona; Sogdian: Xwn)

Zion (Hebrew:  Ṣiyyôn), also transliterated Sion, Syon, Tzion or Tsion, is a place name often used as a synonym for Jerusalem. The word is first found in 2 Samuel 5:7 which dates from c.630–540 BCE according to modern scholarship. It commonly referred to a specific mountain near Jerusalem (Mount Zion), on which stood a Jebusite fortress of the same name that was conquered by David and was named the City of David.

As sewn above, the word Zion in Hebrew is  Ṣiyyôn, & the word Xion in Persian is Xiyon. The phonetical resemblance is too big to be a coincidence. 

The Turanian Karaites were ten tribes of Xion. The Kermichiones were in fact especially the tribe of Simeon.

It is difficult to determine the ethnic composition of the Xionites. Simocatta, Menander, and Priscus provide evidence that the Xionites were somewhat different from the Hephthalites although, Frye suggested that the Hepthalites may have been a prominent tribe or clan of the Xionites. They followed their versions of Buddhism and Shaivism mixed with animism.

In 1932 Sir Harold Walter Bailey wrote: “ Xyon. This name is familiar in Pahlavi and Avestan texts. From the Pahlavi book of Bahman Yasht the three divisions of this people Xyon with the Turks, the Karmir (Red) Xyon, and the White Xyon. ”

The Xiongnu became a dominant power on the steppes of central and eastern Asia. They were active in regions of what is now southern Siberia, Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang. Relations between early adjacent Chinese dynasties to the south east and the Xiongnu were complex, with repeated periods of military conflict and intrigue, alternating with exchanges of tribute, trade, and marriage treaties.

Various attempts to identify them with groups known from further west across the Eurasian Steppe under different names remain highly controversial. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses, because only a few words, mainly titles and personal names, were preserved in the Chinese sources. Proposals by scholars include Turkic, Iranian, Mongolic, Tocharian, Uralic Yeniseian, or multi-ethnic. The name Xiongnu may be cognate with that of Huns (Hunni) and Huna, but the evidence for this is controversial.

They were in the same location as the Khazars. There is a place called Khazar in Azerbaijan. It's a beach touristic area. 

I keep seeing over and over the Huns being the same people as the Xionists and Khazars. The Chinese dont claim them, Arabs dont claim them, People living in Iran during that time didnt claim them, Europe didnt claim them. Who were they? Looks like the Huns (at least part) and Khazars were the same people and it looks like we have two different kinds of Zionists/Xionists.

                                                              Painting depicting Zion. 

According to history the Huns were a force in the late 4th and early 5th Centuries but then disappeared into thin air without a traceable clue. 

If Hitler were going to kill all people of Jewish decent he have to kill most of Germany due to a whole lot of Germans had Jewish Genes...

The 10 tribes would never call themselves "Jews". Some Japhethites mixed in with them. Thats why they look the way they do.

Were Attila & Genghis Khan Israelite Leaders?

Attila was a leader of the Hunnic Empire, a tribal confederation consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths (Lost Israelites from Gad's tribe), and Alans (Lost Israelites from Zebulun's tribe) among others, on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe.

The Huns were a nomadic people, who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century. They were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian people, the Alans. In 91 AD, the Huns were said to be living near the Caspian Sea and by about 150 had migrated southeast into the Caucasus.

                                                                  Attila's empire

By 370, the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe.

In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. However, there is no scholarly consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the Xiongnu and that of the Huns. Priscus, a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian, mentions that the Huns had a language of their own; little of it has survived and its relationships have mainly been considered the Altaic languages. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attila's rule, including very many speakers of Gothic (Goths are regarded as the Lost Israelite tribe of Gad), which some modern scholars describe as a lingua franca of the Empire.
Their main military technique was mounted archery.

The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing factor in the col, the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. They formed a unified empire under Attila the Hun, who died in 453; their empire broke up the next year. Their descendants, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south, east and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia approximately from the 4th century to the 6th century. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century.

Other nomadic polities sometimes were called "Huns", including the Xiongnu, Kidarites, Hephthalite Empire, and Khazars. The Kidarites are virtually named the same as the Semitic Kedarites neighboring the Israelites in the Promised Land. The Hephthalites and Khazars are considered to be Lost Israelites. Even if the Huns were not Israelites, part of their hordes were composed of them.
The Huns were "a confederation of warrior bands", ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power, in the Eurasian Steppe in the 4th to 6th centuries AD. Most aspects of their ethnogenesis (including their language and their links to other peoples of the steppes) are uncertain.

Walter Pohl explicitly states: "All we can say safely is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors."

The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, who completed his work of the history of the Roman Empire in the early 390s, recorded that the "people of the Huns ... dwell beyond the Sea of Azov near the frozen ocean".

Jerome associated them with the Scythians in a letter, written four years after the Huns invaded the empire's eastern provinces in 395. The equation of the Huns with the Scythians, together with a general fear of the coming of the Antichrist in the late 4th century, gave rise to their identification with Gog and Magog (whom Alexander the Great had shut off behind inaccessible mountains, according to a popular legend). This demonization of the Huns is also reflected in Jordanes's Getica, written in the 6th century, which portrayed them as a people descending from "unclean spirits" and expelled Gothic witches.

Since Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, historians have associated the Huns who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th century AD with the Xiongnu ("howling slaves") who had invaded China from the territory of present-day Mongolia between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. Due to the devastating defeat by the Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the Xiongnu had retreated north-westward; their descendants may have migrated through Eurasia and consequently they may have some degree of cultural and genetic continuity with the Huns. Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based primarily on the study of written sources, and to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Thereafter the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns' ancestors became controversial.

The similarity of their ethnonyms is one of the most important links between the two peoples. The Buddhist monk Dharmarakṣa, who was an important translator of Indian religious texts in the 3rd century AD, applied the word Xiongnu when translating the references to the Huna people into Chinese. A Sogdian merchant described the invasion of northern China by the "Xwn" people in a letter, written in 313 AD.

Étienne de la Vaissière asserts both documents prove that Huna or Xwn were the "exact transcriptions" of the Chinese "Xiongnu" name. Christopher P. Atwood rejects that identification because of the "very poor phonological match" between the three words. For instance, Xiongnu begins with a voiceless velar fricative, Huna with a voiceless glottal fricative; Xiongnu is a two-syllable word, but Xwn only has one syllable. The Chinese Book of Wei contain references to "the remains of the descendants of the Xiongnu" who lived in the region of the Altai Mountains in the early 5th century AD. According to De la Vaissière, the Chinese source proves that nomadic groups preserved their Xiongnu identity for centuries after the fall of their empire.

Both the Xiongnu and Huns used bronze cauldrons, similarly to all peoples of the steppes. Based on the study and categorization of cauldrons from archaeological sites of the Eurasian Steppes, archaeologist Toshio Hayashi concludes that the spread of the cauldrons "may indicate the route of migration of the Hunnic tribes" from Mongolia to the northern region of Central Asia in the 2nd or 3rd century AD, and from Central Asia towards Europe in the second half of the 4th century, which also implies the Huns' association with the Xiongnu. The Huns practiced artificial cranial deformation, but there is no evidence of such practise among the Xiongnu. This custom had already been practiced in the Eurasian Steppes in the Bronze Age and in the early Iron Age, but it disappeared around 500 BC. It was also popular in ancient Egypt & among the ancient Tutsis. It again started to spread among the local inhabitants of the region of the Talas River and in the Pamir Mountains in the 1st century BC. In addition to the Huns, the custom is also evidenced among the Yuezhi and Alans. The lengthy pony-tail, which was a characteristic of the Xiongnu, was not documented among the Huns.

When writing of the relationship between the Xiongnu and Huns, historian Hyun Jin Kim concludes: "Thus to refer to Hun-Xiongnu links in terms of old racial theories or even ethnic affiliations simply makes a mockery of the actual historical reality of these extensive, multiethnic, polyglot steppe empires".   He also emphasizes that "the ancestors of the Hunnic core tribes ... were part of the Xiongnu Empire and possessed a strong Xiongnu element, and the ruling elite of the Huns ... claimed to belong to the political tradition of this imperial entity."

Taking into account the historical gap between the Chinese reports of the Xiongnu and the European records of the Huns, Peter Heather states: "Even if we do make some connection between fourth-century Huns and first-century [Xiongnu], therefore, an awful lot of water had passed under an awful lot of bridges during 300 years worth of lost history."

Artificial cranial deformation was practiced by the Huns and sometimes by tribes with whom they influenced. Artificial cranial deformation of the circular type can be used to trace the route that the Huns took from north China to the Central Asian steppes and subsequently to the southern Russian steppes. The people who practiced annular type artificial cranial deformation in Central Asia were Yuezhi/Kushans.

Some artificially deformed crania from the 5th–6th Century AD have been found in Northeastern Hungary and elsewhere in Western Europe. None of them have any Mongoloid features and all the skulls appear Europid; these skulls may have belonged to Germanic or other subject groups whose parents wished to elevate their status by following a custom introduced by the Huns.

A variety of languages were spoken within the Hun Empire. It is considered that by the 440s, they were more Germanic-speaking allies than Huns themselves, and as such Gothic was the lingua franca of the Empire. Kim disputes the idea Gothic or Hunnic were lingua franca due to lack of historical indication. Among non-Hunnic subjects were also included Iranian-speaking Alans and Sarmatians. Based on some etymological interpretation of the words strava, medos, and kamos and subsequent historical appearance, the other languages have been taken to include a form of Proto-Slavic language.

Priscus differed Hunnic language from other languages spoken at Attila's court. He recounts how Zerco made Attila's guests laugh also by the "promiscuous jumble of words, Latin mixed with Hunnish and Gothic".

Priscus said that Attila's "Scythian" subjects spoke "besides their own barbarian tongues, either Hunnish, or Gothic, or, as many have dealings with the Western Romans, Latin; but not one of them easily speaks Greek, except captives from the Thracian or Illyrian frontier regions".

The ancient sources are clear that there was a Hunnic language. The literary sources preserve many names, and three Indo-European words (medos, kamos, strava), which have been studied for more than a century and a half.

Otto Maenchen-Helfen noted that the thesis Huns spoke a Turkic language has a long history behind it. Maenchen-Helfen held that by Turkic origin of Hunnic tribal and proper names, the Huns spoke a Turkic language. Denis Sinor argued that "at least part of the Hun leadership was Turkic speaking".

Traditionally notable studies of proper names chronologically include that of Gyula Németh, Gerhard Doerfer, Maenchen-Helfen, and Omeljan Pritsak.  Pritsak in his study (1982),"The Hunnic Language of the Attila Clan", who analyzing the 33 survived personal names concluded: "It was not a Turkic language, but one between Turkic and Mongolian, probably closer to the former than the latter. The language had strong ties to Bulgar language and to modern Chuvash, but also had some important connections, especially lexical and morphological, to Ottoman Turkish and Yakut".

On the basis of the existing name records, a number of scholars suggest that the Huns spoke a Turkic language of the Oghur branch, which also includes Bulgar, Khazar and Chuvash languages. Peter Heather called the Huns "the first group of Turkic, as opposed to Iranian, nomads to have intruded into Europe". Many recent scholars agree that Hunnic was related to Turkic and Mongolian languages.

In 2013, Hyun Jin Kim concluded that "seems highly likely then from the names that we do know, most of which seem to be Turkic, that the Hunnic elite was predominantly Turkic-speaking".
He noted that as the sources recount, on the Attila's court was spoken beside Hunnic, also Gothic and Latin, and that in the western part of the Empire, where lived subjected Goths, Huns probably spoke both Hunnic and Gothic language. An example would be the Germanic or Germanized names of noted Huns like Laudaricus.

The Huns kept herds of cattle, horses, goats and sheep. According to Roman sources, their other sources of food consisted of wild game and the roots of wild plants. For clothes they had pointed caps, trousers or leggings made from ibex skin, and either linen or rodent skin tunics. Ammianus reports that they wore these clothes until the clothes fell to pieces. Priscus describes Attila's clothes as different from those of his men only in being clean. Women would embroider the edges of the garments and often stitch small colorful stone beads on them as well.

In warfare they used the bow and javelin. Early writers such as Ammianus (followed by Thompson) stated that they used primitive, bone-tipped arrowheads, but this claim has been contested by archaeological findings in Hunnic tombs, which have exclusively yielded iron arrowheads.

Maenchen-Helfen states: "Had the Huns been unable to forge their swords and cast their arrow-heads, they never could have crossed the Don. The idea that the Hun horsemen fought their way to the walls of Constantinople and to the Marne with bartered and captured swords is absurd." They also fought using iron swords and lassos in close combat. The Hun sword was a long, straight, double-edged sword of early Sassanian style. These swords were hung from a belt using the scabbard-slide method, which kept the weapon vertical. The Huns also employed a smaller short sword or large dagger which was hung horizontally across the belly. A symbol of status among the Huns was a gilded bow. Sword and dagger grips also were decorated with gold.

With the arrival of the Huns, a tradition of using more bone laths in composite bows arrived in Europe. Bone laths had long been used in the Levantine and Roman tradition, two to stiffen each of the two siyahs (the tips of the bow), for a total of four laths per bow. (The Scythian and Sarmatian bows, used for centuries on the European steppes until the arrival of the Huns, had no such laths.) A style that arrived in Europe with the Huns (after centuries of use on the borders of China), was stiffened by two laths on each siyah, and additionally reinforced on the grip by three laths, for a total of seven per bow.

Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren listen ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant and Arabia.

The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of nomadic tribes in the Mongolia homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and then under his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire connected the east with the west with an enforced Pax Mongolica allowing trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia. 

They were free marketeers.

The empire began to split due to wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ögedei, or one of his other sons such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. After Möngke Khan died, rival kurultai councils simultaneously elected different successors, the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai Khan, who then not only fought each other in the Toluid Civil War, but also dealt with challenges from descendants of other sons of Genghis. Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued as Kublai sought unsuccessfully to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families.
The Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 marked the high-water point of the Mongol conquests and was the first time a Mongol advance had ever been beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield. Though the Mongols launched many more invasions into the Levant, briefly occupying it and raiding as far as Gaza after a decisive victory at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299, they withdrew due to various geopolitical factors.

By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest; the Chagatai Khanate in the middle; the Ilkhanate in the southwest; and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing. In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty, but it was later overthrown by the Han Chinese Ming dynasty in 1368. The Genghisid rulers of the Yuan retreated to the Mongolia homeland and continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty, while the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate lasted in one form or another for some additional centuries after the fall of the Yuan dynasty and the Ilkhanate.
The Mongols gave freedom of religion & of trade to their subjects.  Eventually the Mongols accepted the religion of their subjects, be that Islam, Christianism or Buddhism & mixed up genetically with them.

The Huns & Mongols had many Israelite subjects with a lost identity & many different new names like Scythian, Saka, Ephtalite, Cimmerian, Goth, Thracian, Sarmatian, Alan, Khazar, Parthian... The Israelite Scythians were long before the Huns & Mongols expert horsemen & bowmen. They were so good with bow & horse that they could ride the horse while throwing the arrows. From them the Mongols might have learned. The name Khagan & its role resembles that of the Israelite Kohen or Kahan. Moreover, there are many Jews nowadays that have last names very similar to Khagan, for example: Kagan, Keegan...

Among the Mongols there were subdivisions like the Keraites that could be part of the ancestors of the Israelite Karaites.

Attila is said to have sown his floor with salt as Genghis Khan did. The custom of purifying or consecrating a destroyed city with salt and cursing anyone who dared to rebuild it was widespread in the ancient Near East, but historical accounts are unclear as to what the sowing of salt meant in that process. The most logical response is found in the Old Testament: After Abimelech captured an enemy city, "he sowed it with salt" (Judges 9:45). "With all your offerings you shall offer salt." (Leviticus 2:13)

Then we can see why both, Attila & Genghis Khan, could have sown with salt enemies' soils.

Have the Kyrgyz people Israelite origin?

As explaned further we see the white origin of the original Kyrgyz people, but with Mongol & Chinese invasions the Semitic features almost  vanished away. Nevertheless you can still find some people with Semitic features & DNA that confirms it. Part of their ancestry came from the Sakas, a people considered to have Israaelite origin.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Genetic origins of the Kyrgyz from various parts of Kyrgyzstan. East Asian (e.g. Mongol) ancestry forms half to 2/3 nationwide, Central/South Asian forms the 2nd largest at around 1/4, and European at around 1/8. Middle Eastern ancestry is minimal to non-existant depending on locality.

The Headscarf of the Kyrgys women is very similar to the one used by Orthodox Jewish women. It's remarkable as well their fire worshipping like other Israelites did anciently.

                                 A Kyrgyz woman in national costume in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

“Manasseh son of Jacob” and the Kyrgyz hero “Manas son of Jakyb.”

Kashmir, Pakistan, Afghanistan & the surrounding area have plenty of Israelite names. It's interesting that Tora Bora in Afghanistan is close to Safed Koh. Tora is similar to the Torah or the Jewish Law & Safed was an ancient Israelite city & capital of kabbalists.

Manas is an airport next to Bishkek, capital of Kyrgyzstan. Comparing Kyrgyzstan’s national epic Manas with ancient prophets reinforces such a bond; especially obvious is the similarity between “Manasseh son of Jacob” and the Kyrgyz hero “Manas son of Jakyb.” There is an ISSYK Kul (Isaac's Lake) in kirgyzstan. Have the Kyrgyz people Israelite origin?

The Epic of Manas is a traditional epic poem dating to the 18th century but claimed by the Kyrgyz people to be much older. This opens the possibility of Manas having spoken a dialect of Turki similar to that of the Kazakhs and Nogay people today. The plot of Manas revolves around a series of events that coincide with the history of the region in the 17th century, primarily the interaction of the Turki-speaking people from the mountains to the south of the Dasht-i Qipchaq and the Oirat Mongols from the bordering area of Jungaria.

The government of Kyrgyzstan celebrated the 1,000th anniversary of Manas in 1995. The eponymous hero of Manas and his Oirat enemy Joloy were first found written in a Persian manuscript dated to 1792-3. In one of its dozens of iterations, the epic poem consists of approximately 500,000 lines, and while Kyrgyz historians consider it to be the longest epic poem in history, the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata and the Tibetan Epic of King Gesar are both longer. The distinction is in number of verses. Manas has more verses, though they are much shorter.

In 2009, a parliament member suggested its nomination for the "longest epic story in the world" because “the great heritage of Kyrgyz people should find its place in the world history.”  There have likewise been attempts to identify Manas as Mannasseh of the Old Testament.

The epic tells the story of Manas, his descendants and his followers. Battles against Khitan and Oirat enemies form a central theme in the epic. The epic is divided into three parts, each consisting of a loose collection of episodic heroic events.

The Epic of Manas is divided into 3 books. The first is entitled "Manas", the second episode describes the deeds of his son Semetei, and the third of his grandson Seitek. The epic begins with the destruction and difficulties caused by the invasion of the Oirats. Zhakyp reaches maturity in this time as an owner of many herds without a single heir. His prayers are eventually answered, and on the day of his son's birth, he dedicates a colt born the same day to his son's service. The son is unique among his peers for strength, mischief, and generosity. The Oirat learn of this young warrior and warn their leader. A plan is hatched to capture the young Manas. They fail in this task, and Manas is able to rally his people and is eventually elected and proclaimed as khan.

Manas expands his reach to include that of the Uyghurs of Moghulistan on the southern border of Jungaria. One of the defeated Uighur rulers gives his daughter to Manas in marriage. At this point, the Kyrgyz people chose, with Manas' help, to return from the Altai mountains to their "ancestral lands" in the mountains of modern-day Kyrgyzstan. Manas begins his successful campaigns against his neighbors accompanied by his forty companions. Manas turns eventually to face the Afghan people to the south in battle, where after defeat the Afghans enter into an alliance with Manas. Manas then comes into a relationship with the people of mā warā' an-nār through marriage to the daughter of the ruler of Bukhara. The epic continues in various forms, depending on the publication and whim of the manaschi, or reciter of the epic.

The epic poem's age is unknowable, as it was transmitted orally without being recorded. However, historians have doubted the age claimed for it since the turn of the 20th century. The primary reason is that the events portrayed occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. Renowned Central Asian historian V. V. Bartol'd referred to Manas as an "absurd gallimaufry of pseudo-history," and Hatto remarks that Manas was "compiled to glorify the Sufi sheikhs of Shirkent and Kasan ... [and] circumstances make it highly probable that... [Manas] is a late eighteenth-century interpolation."

Changes were made in the delivery and textual representation of Manas in the 1920s and 1930s to represent the creation of the Kyrgyz nationality, particularly the replacement of the tribal background of Manas. In the 19th century versions, Manas is the leader of the Nogay people, while in versions dating after 1920, Manas is a Kyrgyz and a leader of the Kyrgyz.

Attempts have been made to connect modern Kyrgyz with the Yenisei Kirghiz, today claimed by Kyrgyzstan to be the ancestors of modern Kyrgyz. Kazakh ethnographer and historian Shokan Shinghisuly Walikhanuli was unable to find evidence of folk-memory during his extended research in 19th-century Kyrgyzstan (then part of the expanding Russian empire) nor has any been found since.

Manas is the classic centerpiece of Kyrgyz literature, and parts of it are often recited at Kyrgyz festivities by specialists in the epic, called Manaschi (Kyrgyz: Манасчы). Manaschis tell the tale in a melodic chant unaccompanied by musical instruments.

Kyrgyzstan has many Manaschis. Narrators who know all three episodes of the epic (the tales of Manas, of his son Semetei and of his grandson Seitek) can acquire the status of Great Manaschi. Great Manaschis of the 20th century are Sagimbai Orozbakov, Sayakbai Karalayev, Shaabai Azizov (pictured), Kaba Atabekov, Seidene Moldokova and Yusup Mamai. A revered Manaschi who recently visited the United Kingdom is Rysbek Jumabayev. Urkash Mambetaliev, the Manaschi of the Bishkek Philharmonic, also travels through Europe. Talantaaly Bakchiyev combines recitation with critical study.

There are more than 65 written versions of parts of the epic. An English translation of the version of Sagimbai Orozbakov by Walter May was published in 1995, in commemoration of the presumed 1000th anniversary of Manas' birth, and re-issued in two volumes in 2004. Arthur Hatto has made English translations of the Manas tales recorded by Shokan Valikhanov and Vasily Radlov in the 19th century.

Manas is said to have been buried in the Ala-Too mountains in Talas Province, in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. A mausoleum some 40 km east of the town of Talas is believed to house his remains and is a popular destination for Kyrgyz travellers. Traditional Kyrgyz horsemanship games are held there every summer since 1995. An inscription on the mausoleum states, however, that it is dedicated to "...the most famous of women,  Kenizek-Khatun, the daughter of the emir Abuka". Legend has it that Kanikey, Manas' widow, ordered this inscription in an effort to confuse her husband's enemies and prevent a defiling of his grave. The name of the building is "Manastin Khumbuzu" or "The Dome of Manas", and the date of its erection is unknown. There is a museum dedicated to Manas and his legend nearby the tomb.

Kyrgyz people

In Kyrgyz tradition, the website explains, the term dzeet (Jew) is found for the first time in the Kyrgyz national epic poem “Manas,” which dates back to the 10th century CE and probably incorporates earlier traditions. Manas mentions several cities with sizeable Jewish communities, among them Samarqand, Bukhara and Baghdad, as well as various places in the Middle East, including Jerusalem which is described in the poem as a “Holy City for Jews.”

An entire section of the poem is dedicated to “King Solomon’s times” (Sulaimandyn Tushunda). Several popular Kyrgyz legends refer to a 130-meter high mountain near the city of Osh called “King Solomon’s throne.” Local Jews compared the mountain with Mount Zion.

According to the Kyrgyz tradition, Adam is considered the father of sewing and weaving, Noah – of architecture and carpentry, David – of metallurgy and tinwork, and Abraham – of barbers. In the Suzak region of Kyrgyzstan there is a village named Safar – possibly a variant of “Sephard” – for Jews of Sephardic origin.

There are several theories on the origin of ethnonym "Kyrgyz". The word "Kyrgyz" is derived from the Turkic word "kyrk"-meaning forty, with -"Iz" being an old plural suffix, referring to a collection of forty tribes.

Kyrgyz also means "imperishable", "inextinguishable", "immortal", "unconquerable" or "unbeatable", presumably referring to the epic hero Manas who, as legend has it, unified the forty tribes against the Khitans.

The Chinese transcription "Tse-gu" (Gekun, Jiankun) allows to restore the pronunciation of the ethnonym as Kirkut (Kirgut) and Kirkur (Kirgur). Both forms go back to the earliest variation Kirkün (Chinese Tszyan-kun) of the term "Kyrgyz" meaning "Field People", "Field Huns".

The early Kyrgyz people, known as Yenisei Kyrgyz, first appear in written records in the Chinese annals of the Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian (compiled 109 BC to 91 BC), as Gekun or Jiankun (鬲昆 or 隔昆). They were described in Tang Dynasty texts as having "red hair and green eyes", while those with dark hair and eyes were said to be descendants of a Chinese general Li Ling.

According to recent historical findings, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC. The Yenisei Kyrgyz lived in the upper Yenisey River valley, central Siberia. In Late Antiquity the Yenisei Kyrgyz were a part of the Tiele people. Later, in the Early Middle Ages, the Yenisei Kyrgyz were a part of the confederations of the Göktürk and Uyghur Khaganates.

A majority of modern researchers came to the conclusion that the ancestors of Kyrgyz tribes had their origin in the most ancient tribal unions of Sakas and Usuns, Dinlins, Mongols and Huns.

The genetic makeup of the Kyrgyz is confirmed by various genetic studies. For instance, 63% of modern Kyrgyz men of Jumgal District share Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) with Ishkashimis (68%), Tajiks of Panjikent (64%, three times more than other Tajiks), Pashtuns (51%), and Bartangis (40%). Low diversity of Kyrgyz R1a1 indicates a founder effect within the historical period. Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) is often believed to be a marker of the Proto-Indo-European language speakers. Other groups of Kyrgyz show considerably lower haplogroup R frequencies and almost lack haplogroup N.

In a maternal mtDNA study, West Eurasian DNA ranges from 27% to 42.6% in the Kyrgyz.

Because of the processes of migration, conquest, intermarriage, and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins, often stemming from fragments of  many different tribes, though they speak closely related languages.

Then Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the 12th century, however, the Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the Altai Range and the Sayan Mountains as a result of the rising Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. In 1207, after the establishment of Yekhe Mongol Ulus (Mongol empire), Genghis Khan's oldest son Jochi occupied Kyrgyzstan without resistance. They remained a Mongol vassal until the late 14th century.

Various Turkic peoples ruled them until 1685, when they came under the control of the Oirats (Dzungars). Kyrgyz are predominantly Muslims of the Hanafi Sunni school. Islam was first introduced by Arab traders who travelled along the Silk Road in the seventh and eighth century. In the 8th century, orthodox Islam reached the Fergana valley with the Uzbeks. However, in the tenth century Persian text Hudud al-'alam, the Kyrgyz was still described as a people who "venerate the Fire and burn the dead".

Atheism has some following in the northern regions under Russian communist influence. As of today, few cultural rituals of Shamanism are still practiced alongside with Islam particularly in Central Kyrgyzstan. During a July 2007 interview, Bermet Akayeva, the daughter of Askar Akayev, the former President of Kyrgyzstan, stated that Islam is increasingly taking root even in the northern portion which came under communist influence. She emphasized that many mosques have been built and that the Kyrgyz are "increasingly devoting themselves to Islam."

Hazar-Susah in Biblical Hebrew חצרסוסה

The name Hazar-susah in the Bible

The graceful name Hazar-susah occurs once in the Bible. It's the name of a town in the area allotted to the tribe of Simeon (Joshua 19:5). By the time the Chronicler was writing, the town was known as חצר סוסים (Hazar-susim; 1 Chronicles 4:31).

Etymology of the name Hazar-susah

The name Hazar-susah obviously consists of two elements. The first part of our name is the same as the noun חצר (haser), meaning village: There are four or five different roots חצר (hsr), which officially have nothing to do with each other. But at second glance, they all seem to reflect enclosure, mostly of a form or shape that starts out small and grows larger, like a trumpet:

The unused root חצר (hsr I) occurs in cognate languages with meanings like to encompass, surround or enclose. It's the root of the masculine noun חצר (haser) meaning court or enclosure.

Courts were common in near eastern architecture. Houses were designed around them and the tabernacle and the temple had outer courts; enclosed area's around the actual sanctuary. Ezekiel's temple and probably Solomon's temple as well, also had inner courts. It's of those courts that the Psalmist sang: better is one day in your courts than a thousand elsewhere (Psalm 84:10).

The root חצר (hsr II) occurs in cognate languages with meanings such as to be present, settle or dwell. In the Bible, only the derived masculine noun חצר (haser) occurs. It means settled abode (Nehemiah 11:25), settlement (Genesis 25:16) or village without a wall (Leviticus 25:31).

Note that this word is identical to the previous noun, meaning that in Hebrew courts and villages were known by the exact same word. Then take in account that the temple represented the human collective it was central to, and these two words blend into a harmonious one.

The root חצר (hsr III) occurs in cognate language as to be green. Still, in Hebrew it might have less to do with being green and much more with the frailty of the individual versus the strength of the collective. This root's sole surviving derivative is the masculine noun חציר (hasir), meaning grass. This word is used to denote food for animals (1 Kings 18:5, Isaiah 15:6) but more often in metaphors that describe how short and perishable a human individual life is (Job 8:12, Isaiah 37:27).

The metaphor immediately also argues that although one tent makes no village, and one blade of grass makes no lush carpet, the village and the lush carpet called humanity is quite perennial.

HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament counts an extra root חצר (hsr), where BDB Theological Dictionary doesn't. HAW says that the noun חציר (hasir), meaning leek (Numbers 11:5 only), comes from a root חצר (hsr IV) that means to be narrow. Note that this noun is identical to the previous one, and also note that the trumpet-like form of a leek is precisely like a centralized city, but in three dimensions in stead of two.

HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament suggests that the final root חצר (hsr V) may also mean to be narrow (like the previous one). Its derivatives are:

The feminine noun חצצרה (hasosra), meaning trumpet (2 Kings 12:14, Hosea 5:8, Numbers 10:5). The denominative verb חצצר (hssr), meaning to sound the trumpet (2 Chronicles 5:13).

Associated Biblical names
Baal-hazor  En-hazor  Hazar-addar  Hazar-enan  Hazar-gaddah  Hazar-hatticon ♂ Hazarmaveth  Hazaroth  ♞ Hazar-shual  Hazar-susah  Hazor  Hazor-hadattah ♂ Hezro ♂ Hezron

Hazara could easily come from the Hebrew word Hazar too.

Remnant Khazar Tribe lives in Afghanistan: Hazaras

A tribe in Central Afghanistan is direct descendency of the Khazars of history. Its name says it all: Hazara People.

The tribe's name - Hazara - is obviously Khazars in Farsi (the Russians/Ukrainians say 'Hasari'), moreover it is said in the article cited: people of Mongolian descent. The Uyghurs are cousins of the Khazars of history and are now Muslims and subjects of China in the Sinkiang (East Turkestan).

Connection between the Hazara people and the Khazars

Both peoples are Turkic and some Turkic historians in Afghanistan strongly believe in direct connection between them. They say the name of the Khazar sea (Caspian) and Hazar city of Turkmenistan have been taken from the Hazara or the Khazar people.

When you look at the naming convention of the Hazaras before the Islamic names flourished through out the Hazara society, and compare our ancestral names with the remenants of what exist in today's Khazar areas, and those who have converted to Jewdism and Christianity, you do see similarities. I will name few as.

Hazara/Turkic Jewish/Christians (whose ancestors are from us).
Beg Berg/Beg/Beck/Burg. Freidun Freidman. Stan Stein. Jaan John. Ghulam Ghelman. Choly.

Several of the Jews's last names are similar to our ancestral Turkic names, some of which I've already mentioned above. Yes, of course with slight variations, but you can still link the two. 

The very word "Jew" is derived from the famous saying of ours "Joo". When these people flourish throughout the eastern Europe, not speaking the language, and speaking in their own tongue among other ppl, and calling eachother by name, with a "Joo" at the end, such as "bacha joo, Rahmat joo", and so on, then that's how they were slowly being called "Joo or Jew" by the others, who used to hear that all the time. The word "Joo" is used alot among Hazaras calling each other's name, or at home by parents calling their children, "Bacha joo". 

Many of the Russian, and all other eastern European languages are flourished with the Turkic words, many of which are still pretty commonly used among them, and the Turkics/Hazaras. 

One of the inscriptions are Behsutun, which means "Belongs to Behsut". Behsut is a big tribe of Hazaras. So Cyrus (Dariush), had that inscription, and told many stories in that inscription about his wars and Persians.

Lands of the Dispersion: Central Asia

The response to missionary work in Mongolia was remarkable, at least for the first few years. Evidence of the Blood of Israel will accumulate with regard to Kyrgyzstan in future years.

Some Jews of the Muslim ex Soviet countries

Who are the Tat speaking peoples, and from where did they come? They believe themselves to be descended from Jews taken during the Assyrian captivity and displaced to the cities of the Medes, who spoke a dialect of Old Persian. The Tat language is based on Persian, just like Iran's Farsi language. Interestingly enough, the Tat language is spoken today by Muslim and even Christian peoples, as well as Jewish ones.

Formerly many Tat speaking Jews lived in the Caucasus Mountains of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Today most of these people, also known as mountain Jews, have left the FSU. Many are still scattered in southern Russia's mountainous Daghestan region and neighboring Azerbaijan. Yet one fourth of them live in Brooklyn, New York, and about half now live in Israel.

Because of their unique history and culture, Jews have a strong sense of identity. Although they have much in common with other Jews around the world, the Jews of Asia have a very distinctive lifestyle. Most of the Jews in this part of Asia are Ashkenazim, or descendants of the Jews who inhabited the Germanic region of Europe. One of their most distinguishing features is their use of the Yiddish language (a German dialect that has some Hebrew elements). Most of the Ashkenazim came into Central Asia from other parts of the Soviet Union before and during World War II. 

Bukharan Jews are an indigenous group within Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. They are known as "Bukharan" because they settled primarily in Bukhara, Uzbekistan; but, they prefer to be known as "Israel" or "Yahudi." They claim descent from the ten tribes of Israel who were exiled to Persia in the fifth century. They speak Bokhara, a Jewish dialect of Tajik. Some Jews also live in India, mainly in Bombay and the surrounding areas. They are known as Bene Israel ("the Children of Israel"). They speak an Indo-Aryan language called Marathi.

The Jews of Ashkenazic descent have lifestyles that are very much like those of other Jews in the former Soviet Union. However, they were allowed greater freedoms than the Jews in other parts of the Soviet Union, and they clung to their Judaism tenaciously. While some of them work as peddlers, shoemakers, or barbers, many have become factory laborers or workers on "collective (community) farms." Recently, large numbers of Jews have left Uzbekistan due to economic hardship and fear of a nationalistic trend in the government. 

In past centuries, the Bukharan Jews have experienced much discrimination from the predominant Muslim population. They were forced to live in isolated parts of the cities, called mahallas; to wear special signs on their clothing, which marked them as Jews; and to pay special taxes. Only in the last ten years have Bukharan Jews been able to give cultural expression openly without fear of persecution. Today, a number of Hebrew study groups have been organized and are growing stronger. 

During Soviet rule, both Bukharan men and women worked in factories that produced butter, bricks, or textiles. Recently, they have returned to many of their traditional crafts, such as shoemaking, hairdressing, tailoring, and photography. The women are particularly known for their dancing at both Jewish and Muslim weddings. There are also a large number of well-educated Bukharan Jews working as engineers, doctors, teachers, and musicians. 

Bukharan Jewish males were the heads of their patrilineal (descent traced through the males) extended families. Now, a pattern of separate nuclear families is becoming predominant. Bukharan Jews nearly always marry other Bukharan Jews. The parents of the groom send a matchmaker to the parents of the bride, and both dowry and bride-price must be settled prior to the engagement. Divorce is permitted among Bukharan Jews and a law exists to regulate the marriages of widows. 

In Bombay, the Jews are employed in numerous professions. Some of them work in the service industry, or as clerks, mechanics, white-collar workers, and skilled laborers. A significant number are professionals such as doctors, teachers, and lawyers. 

Most Bombay Jewish families are typical nuclear families. That is, they are composed of a man, a woman, and their dependents. In order to keep wealth and prestige within the family, the Bombay Jews have traditionally preferred marriage between cousins. Divorce is completely disapproved of and is very uncommon.

The Ashkenazic Jews who live in cities have a weak religious lifestyle and many have intermarried with Muslims. However, the Bukharan and Bombay Jews adhere to all traditional Jewish beliefs. They follow the Law of Moses, observing strict dietary laws, circumcising all male children, and observing the Sabbath. They also celebrate Jewish festivals like Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), and Passover.

Many of the Ashkenazic Jews have intermarried with the Muslim community. Because they are open to others outside the Jewish community, perhaps they will be open to the Gospel. The Bukharan Jews of Uzbekistan are uncertain about the direction of their nation. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan is going through rapid and drastic changes. Anti-Semitism (persecution of Jews) is a possible result of the rise in nationalism. The Bombay Jews are strongly influenced by tradition, making them unreceptive to change.

Nestorian Israelites or Church of the East

Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Assyria, northern Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon – the Church of the East. Unlike most other churches that trace their origins to antiquity, the modern Assyrian Church of the East is not in communion with any other churches, either Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, or Catholic.

Theologically, the church is associated with the doctrine of Nestorianism, leading to the church, perhaps inaccurately, also being known as a "Nestorian Church", though church leadership has at times rejected the Nestorian label, and was already extant some four centuries prior to Nestorius. The church employs the Syriac dialect of the Aramaic language in its liturgy, the East Syrian Rite, which includes three anaphoras, attributed to Saints Addai and Mari, Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius.

The Church of the East developed between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD from the early Assyrian Christian communities in the Assuristan province (Parthian ruled Assyria) of the Parthian Empire, and at its height had spread from its north Mesopotamian heartland to as far as China, Central Asia and India. A dispute over patriarchal succession led to the Schism of 1552, resulting in there being two rival Patriarchs. One of the factions that eventually emerged from this split became the Assyrian Church of the East, while another became the church now known as the Chaldean Catholic Church, originally called The Church of Athura (Assyria) and Mosul, which eventually entered into communion with the Catholic Church, both in continuation from the Church of the East.

A more recent schism in the church resulted from the adoption of the Assyrian Church of the East of the Gregorian Calendar rather than maintaining the traditional Julian calendar that is off by 13 days. The opponents to the reforms introduced formed in 1964 the Ancient Church of the East headquartered in Baghdad and headed since 1968 by a separate Catholicos-Patriarch.

The Assyrian Church of the East is headed by the Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, who currently presides in exile in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Below the Catholicos-Patriarch are a number of metropolitan bishops, diocesan bishops, priests, and deacons who serve dioceses and parishes throughout the Middle East, India, North America, Oceania, and Europe (including the Caucasus and Russia).

Early years of the Church of the East

The Church of the East originally developed during the 1st century AD in the Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic speaking regions of Assyria and northwestern Persia (today's Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and north western Iran), to the east of the Roman-Byzantine empire. It is an Apostolic church, established by the apostles St Thomas (Mar Toma), St Thaddeus (Mar Addai), and St Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay). St Peter (Mar Shimun Keapa), the chief of the apostles added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the see at Babylon, in the earliest days of the church when stating, "The elect church which is in Babylon, salutes you; and Mark, my son (1 Peter 5:13).

Official recognition was first granted to the Christian faith in the 4th century with the accession of Yazdegerd I to the throne of the Sassanid Empire. In 410, the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sassanid capital, allowed the Church's leading bishops to elect a formal Catholicos, or leader. The Catholicos, Mar Isaac, was required both to lead the Assyrian Christian community, and to answer on its behalf to the Sassanid Emperor.

Under pressure from the Sassanid Emperor, the Church of the East sought increasingly to distance itself from the western (Roman Empire) Catholic Church. In 424, the bishops of the Sassanid Empire met in council under the leadership of Catholicos Mar Dadisho I (421–456) and determined that they would not, henceforth, refer disciplinary or theological problems to any external power, and especially not to any bishop or Church Council in the Roman Empire.

As such, the Mesopotamian and Assyrian Churches were not represented at the various Church Councils attended by representatives of the Western Church. Accordingly, the leaders of the Church of the East did not feel bound by any decisions of what came to be regarded as Roman Imperial Councils. Despite this, the Creed and Canons of the first Council of Nicea (325); affirming the full divinity of Christ; were formally accepted at the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon. The Church's understanding of the term 'hypostasis' differs from the definition of the term offered at the Council of Chalcedon. For this reason, the Assyrian Church has never approved the Chalcedonian definition.

The theological controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus, in 431, proved a turning point in the Church's history. The Council condemned as heretical the Christology of Nestorius, whose reluctance to accord the Virgin Mary the title 'Theotokos' ('God-bearer' or 'Mother of God') was taken as evidence that he believed two separate persons (as opposed to two united natures) to be present within Christ. (For the theological issues at stake, see Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism.)

The Sassanid Emperor, hostile to the Roman Empire, saw the opportunity to ensure the loyalty of his Christian subjects and lent support to the Nestorian schism. The Sassanid Emperor took steps to cement the primacy of the Nestorian party within the Church of the East, granting its members his protection, and executing the pro-Roman Catholicos Babowai, replacing him with the Nestorian Bishop of Nisibis, Barsauma. The Catholicos-Patriarch Mar Babai I (497–503) confirmed the association of the Persian Church with Nestorianism.

Eastern expansion

During the medieval period the geographical horizons of the Church of the East extended well beyond its heartland in present-day northern Iraq. Communities sprang up throughout Central Asia, and missionaries from Assyria and Mesopotamia took the Christian faith as far as China and the Malabar Coast of India.

Schism and the establishment of the Chaldean Church

The massacres of Assyrian Christians by Tamerlane (1336–1405) destroyed many bishoprics, including the ancient Assyrian city of Ashur. The Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China, was largely reduced to an Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian remnant living in its original heartland in Upper Mesopotamia (what had been Assyria), the triangular area between Amid, Salmas and Mosul. The See was moved to the Assyrian town of Alqosh, in the Mosul region, and Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) appointed Patriarch, establishing a new, hereditary, line of succession.

Growing dissent in the church's hierarchy over hereditary succession came to a head in 1552, when a group of bishops from the Northern regions of Amid and Salmas elected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa as a rival Patriarch. Seeking consecration as Patriarch by a Bishop of Metropolitan rank, Sulaqa traveled to Rome in 1553, and entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church. On being appointed Patriarch, Sulaqa took the name Mar Shimun VIII and was granted the title of "Patriarch of Mosul and Athur (Assyria)". Later this title became "Patriarch of the Chaldeans", despite none of its adherents being from the long disappeared Chaldean tribe, or from what had been Chaldea in the far south east of Mesopotamia.

Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned to the Near East the same year, establishing his seat in Amid. Before being put to death by partisans of the Patriarch of Alqosh, he ordained five metropolitan bishops, thus establishing a new ecclesiastical hierarchy, a line of patriarchal descent known as the Shimun line.

Sees in Qochanis, Amid, and Alqosh (17th century)

Relations with Rome weakened under Shimun VIII's successors, all of whom took the name Shimun. The last of this line of Patriarchs to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the early 17th century. Hereditary accession to the office of Patriarch was reintroduced, and by 1660 the Assyrian Church of the East had become divided into two Patriarchates; the Eliya line, based in Alqosh (comprising that portion of the faithful which had never entered into Communion with Rome), and the Shimun line.

In 1672 the Patriarch of the Shimun line, Mar Shimun XIII Denha, moved his seat to the Assyrian village of Qochanis in the mountains of Hakkari. In 1692, the Patriarch formally broke communion with Rome and allegedly resumed relations with the line at Alqosh, though retaining the independent structure and jurisdiction of his line of succession.

The so-called Chaldean Patriarchate was revived in 1672 when Mar Joseph I, then the Assyrian Church of the East metropolitan of Amid, entered into communion with Rome, thus separating from the Patriarchal See of Alqosh. In 1681, the Holy See granted Mar Joseph the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its Patriarch", thus forming the third Patriarchate of the Assyrian Church of the East. It was this third Patriarchate that was to become known as the Chaldean Catholic Church in 1683.

Josephite line of Amid

Each of Joseph I's successors took the name Joseph. The life of this Patriarchate was difficult; stricken early on with internal dissent, the Patriarchiate later struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Despite these difficulties, the influence of the Patriarchate expanded from its original homeland of Amid and Mardin towards the area of Mosul, where ultimately the See was relocated.

Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd, the last of the Eliya hereditary line of the Assyrian Church of the East in Alqosh, made a Catholic profession of faith in 1780. Though entering full communion with the Roman See in 1804, he was not recognized as Patriarch by the Pope until 1830. This move merged the majority of the Patriarcate of Alqosh with the Josephite line of Amid, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.

The Shimun line of Patriarchs, based in Qochanis, remained within the Assyrian Church of the East, and refused to enter communion with Rome and join the Chaldean Church. The Patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East, with its see in Chicago, forms the continuation of this line.

20th century

In 1915 the Assyrian Church see at Qochanis see was completely destroyed by the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the context of the Assyrian Genocide, Assyrian war of independence and Armenian Genocide. Survivors of the massacres escaped by marching over the mountains into Iran and Iraq to join their kinsmen. In 1918, after the murder of Mar Shimun XXI Benyamin and 150 of his followers, and fearing further massacres at the hands of the Turks and Kurds, the survivors fled from Iran into what was to become Iraq, seeking protection under the British mandate there, and joining ancient indigenous existing Assyrian communities of both Eastern Rite and Catholic persuasions in the north of that country.

The British administration employed Assyrian troops (Assyrian Levies) to put down Arab and Kurdish rebellions in the aftermath of World War I. In consequence, Assyrians of all denominations endured persecution under the Hashemite monarchy, leading many to flee to the West, in particular to the United States, where Chicago became the center of the diaspora community.

Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII

During this period the British-educated Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, born into the line of Patriarchs at Qochanis, agitated for an independent Assyrian state. Following the end of the British mandate in 1933 and a massacre of Assyrian civilians at Simele by the Iraqi Army, the Patriarch was forced to take refuge in Cyprus. There, Shimun petitioned the League of Nations regarding his peoples' fate, but to little avail, and he was consequently barred from entering Syria and Iraq. He traveled through Europe before moving to Chicago in 1940 to join the growing Assyrian diaspora community there.

The Church and the Assyrian community in general faced considerable fragmentation and upheaval as a result of the conflicts of the 20th century, and Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII was forced to reorganize the church's structure in the United States. He transferred his residence to San Francisco, California in 1954, and was able to travel to Iran, Lebanon, Kuwait, and India, where he worked to strengthen the church.

In 1964 he decreed a number of changes to the church, including liturgical reform, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the shortening of Lent. These changes, combined with Shimun's long absence from Iraq, caused a rift in the community which led to another schism. In 1968 traditionalists within the church elected Mar Thoma Darmo as a rival patriarch to Shimun XXIII Eshai, creating the Ancient Church of the East.

In 1972, Shimun decided to step down as Patriarch, and the following year, he married, in contravention to longstanding church custom. This led to a synod in 1973 in which further reforms were introduced, most significantly including the permanent abolition of hereditary succession a practice introduced in the middle of the fifteenth century by the patriarch Shemʿon IV Basidi who had died in 1497); however, it was decided that Shimun should be reinstated. This matter was to be settled at additional synods in 1975, however Shimun was assassinated by an estranged relative before this could take place.

Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV

In 1976, the current Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, was elected as Shimun XXIII Eshai's successor. The 33-year old Dinkha had previously been Metropolitan of Tehran, and operated his see there until the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–1988. Thereafter, Mar Dinkha IV went into exile in the United States, and transferred the patriarchal see to Chicago. Much of his patriarchate has been concerned with tending to the Assyrian diaspora community and with ecumenical efforts to strengthen relations with other churches.

Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism

The Nestorian nature of Assyrian Christianity remains a matter of contention. Elements of the Nestorian doctrine were explicitly repudiated by Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV (South Sudan is considered to have many Israelites. One of it's ethnicities is called Dinka) on the occasion of his accession in 1976.

The Christology of the Church of the East has its roots in the Antiochene theological tradition of the early Church. The founders of Assyrian theology are Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, both of whom taught at Antioch. 'Antiochene' is a modern designation given to the style of theology associated with the early Church at Antioch, as contrasted with the theology of the church of Alexandria.

Antiochene theology emphasised Christ's humanity and the reality of the moral choices he faced. In order to preserve the impassibility of Christ's Divine Nature, the unity of His person was defined in a looser fashion than in the Alexandrian tradition. The normative Christology of the Assyrian church was written by Babai the Great (551–628) during the controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus (431). Babai held that within Christ there exist two qnome (essences, or hypostases), unmingled, but everlastingly united in the one prosopon(personality).

The precise Christological teachings of Nestorius are shrouded in obscurity. Wary of monophysitism, Nestorius rejected Cyril's theory of a hypostatic union, proposing instead a union of will. Nestorianism has come to mean dyaphysitism, in which Christ's dual natures are eternally separate, though it is doubtful whether Nestorius ever taught such a doctrine. Nestorius' rejection of the term Theotokos ('God-bearer', or 'Mother of God') has traditionally been held as evidence that he asserted the existence of two persons – not merely two natures – in Jesus Christ, but there exists no evidence that Nestorius denied Christ's oneness. In the controversy that followed the Council of Ephesus, the term 'Nestorian' was applied to all upholding a strictly Antiochene Christology. In consequence the Church of the East was labelled 'Nestorian', though its theology is not dyophysite.

The Church is governed by an episcopal polity, which is the same as other Catholic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Catholicos-Patriarch, currently Mar Dinkha IV is head of the church. The Synod comprises Bishops who oversee individual dioceses, and Metropolitans who oversee episcopal dioceses in there territorial jurisdiction.

The Chaldean Syrian Church in India and the Persian Gulf is the largest diocese of the church. Its story goes back to the Church of the East that established presence in Kerala. The converts were from lower, untouchable castes, for in a caste-ridden Malabar society. During times of disturbances in the Persian Empire and the Middle East, Assyrian inflow into Kerala ceased and local converts had to take responsibility for the churches. Nevertheless, Malabar churches retained their Nestorian connections. Connection between the Malabar church and the Church of the East was sporadic for a long period till the arrival of the Portuguese. The church is represented by the Assyrian Church of the East and is in communion with it.

In spite of both ethnic and religious persecution and a serious decline in membership since their height around the fourth century, the Assyrian Church of the East has survived into the 21st century. Here is St. Mary Assyrian Church in Moscow.


The current hierarchy and dioceses is as follows. The Patriarchate of the Church of the East was located for centuries in the cathedral church of Mar Shallita, in the village of Qudshanis in the Hakkari mountains, Ottoman Empire. After the exodus in 1915 the Patriarchs temporarily resided between Urmia and Salmas, and from 1918 the patriarchs resided in Mosul, Iraq. After the Simele massacre of 1933, the then Patriarch Shimun XXIII Eshai was exiled to Cyprus. In 1940 he was welcomed to the United States where he set up his residence in Chicago, Illinois and administrated the United States and Canada as his Patriarchal province. The patriarchate was moved to Modesto, California in 1954, and finally to San Francisco, California in 1958 due to health issues. After the assassination of the Patriarch and the election of Mar Dinkha IV in 1976, the patriarchate was temporarily located in Tehran, Iran where the patriarch already resided. Since 1980, the Patriarchate again returned to Chicago, Illinois where it currently remains. The Diocese of Eastern United States served as the patriarch's province from 1994 until 2012.

Due to the unstable political, religious and economic situation in the church's historical homeland of the Middle East, many of the church members now reside in Western countries. Churches and dioceses have been established throughout Europe, America and Oceania. The largest expatriate concentration of church members is in the United States, mainly situated in Illinois and California.

Church of the East (Nestorian Christianity)

The Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒ(d)tāʾ d-Maḏn(ə)ḥāʾ), derogatorily and both doctrinally, historically and chronologically innacurrately known as the Nestorian Church, is a Christian church, part of the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity. It was founded in Assyria (Athura) in northern Mesopotamia between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, during the Parthian Empire. It was to become the church of the Persian Sassanid Empire, and quickly spread widely through Asia. Between the 9th and 14th centuries it was the world's largest Christian church in terms of geographical extent, with dioceses stretching from the Mediterranean to China and India. Several modern churches claim continuity with the historical Church of the East.

The Church of the East was headed by the Patriarch of the East, continuing a line that, according to tradition, stretched back to the Apostolic Age. Liturgically, the church commonly adhered to the East Syrian Rite, and theologically, it later became associated with the doctrine of Nestorianism, which emphasized the distinctness of the divine and human natures of Jesus. This doctrine and its chief proponent, Nestorius (386–451), were condemned by the First Council of Ephesus in 431, leading to the Nestorian Schism and a subsequent exodus of Nestorius' supporters to Sassanid Persia. The existing Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian Christians within the Sassanid Empire welcomed these refugees and adopted Nestorian doctrine at the Synod of Acacius in 486AD (officially adopting the decrees of the local 484AD synod of Bit Lapat), leading the Church of the East to be known alternately as the Nestorian Church. However, in 544AD the controversial Synod of Mar Aba I attempted to reverse the influence of 484 and 486 and was the basis of the reforms carried out by Babai lauded by Rome as well as the Assyrians and their branches. Eventually, the Church of the East rejected Babai and Mar Aba I but accepted King Khosrau's Synod of 612AD which was the first to describe Miaphysite Christology later adopted by the Oriental Orthodox. Catholicos Timothy I of Baghdad is perhaps the best recorded exemplar of the Church's approach to a wide variety of subjects at the turn of the 9th century AD.

The church grew rapidly under the Sassanids, and following the Islamic conquest of Persia, it was designated as a protected dhimmi community under Muslim rule. From the 6th century, it expanded greatly from its north Mesopotamian heartland, establishing communities in India (the Saint Thomas Christians), among the Mongol tribes in Central Asia, and China, which was home to a thriving Church of the East Christian community under the Tang Dynasty from the 7th to the 9th century. In the 13th and 14th centuries the church experienced a final period of expansion under the Mongol Empire, which had influential Church of the East Christians in the Mongol court.

From its peak of geographical extent, the church experienced a rapid period of decline starting in the 14th century, due in large part to outside influences. The Mongol Empire dissolved into civil war, the Chinese Ming Dynasty overthrew the Mongols and ejected Christians and other foreign influences from China (also including Manichaeism), and many Mongols in Central Asia converted to Islam. The Muslim Mongol leader Timur (1336–1405) nearly eradicated the remaining Assyrian Christians in Mesopotamia; thereafter, Nestorian Christianity was largely confined to Upper Mesopotamia and the Malabar Coast of India. In the 16th century, the Church of the East in the Assyrian homeland of northern Mesopotamia went into a schism from which two distinct churches eventually emerged amongst the Assyrians: the modern Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See.

Organization and structure

The head of the church, the Patriarch of the Church of the East, also bears the title of Catholicos. Like the churches from which it developed, the Church of the East has an ordained clergy divided into the three traditional orders of deacon, priest (or presbyter), and bishop. Also like other churches, it has an episcopal polity: organization by dioceses, each headed by a bishop and made up of several individual parish communities overseen by priests. Dioceses are organized into provinces under the authority of a metropolitan bishop. The office of metropolitan bishop is an important one, and comes with additional duties and powers; canonically, only metropolitans can consecrate a patriarch. The Patriarch also has the charge of a province: the Province of the Patriarch.

For most of its history the church had six or so Interior Provinces in its heartland in northern Mesopotamia, south eastern Anatolia, and north western Persia, and an increasing number of Exterior Provinces elsewhere. Most of these latter were located farther afield within the territory of the Sassanids (and later of the Caliphate), but very early on, provinces formed beyond the empire's borders as well. By the 10th century, the church had between 20 and 30 metropolitan provinces including in China and India. The Chinese provinces were lost in the 11th century, and in the subsequent centuries, other exterior provinces went into decline as well. However, in the 13th century, during the Mongol Empire, the church added two new metropolitan provinces in northern China, Tangut and Katai and Ong.

Nestorian priests in a procession on Palm Sunday, in a 7th- or 8th-century wall painting from a Nestorian church in China, Tang Dynasty


The Church of the East is associated with Nestorianism, a Christological doctrine advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428 – 431 AD, which emphasizes the disunion between the human and divine natures of Jesus.

Nestorius's doctrine represented the culmination of a philosophical current developed by scholars at the School of Antioch, most notably Nestorius's mentor Theodore of Mopsuestia. This became a source of controversy when Nestorius publicly challenged usage of the title Theotokos (literally, "Bearer of God") for the Virgin Mary. He suggested that the title denied Christ's full humanity, arguing instead that Jesus had two loosely joined natures, the divine Logos and the human Jesus, and proposed Christotokos (literally, "Bearer of the Christ") as a more suitable alternative title. These statements drew criticism from other prominent churchmen, particularly from Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, leading to the First Council of Ephesus in 431, which condemned Nestorius for heresy and deposed him as patriarch. Nestorianism was officially anathematized, a ruling reiterated at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. However, a number of churches, particularly those associated with the School of Edessa in Assyria and northern Mesopotamia, supported Nestorius—though not necessarily the doctrine ascribed to him—and broke with the churches of the Roman and Byzantine Empires. Many of Nestorius' supporters relocated to Sassanid Persia. These events are known as the Nestorian Schism.

Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of The Church of the East (light blue)

Although the "Nestorian" label was initially a theological one, applied to followers of the Nestorian doctrine, it was soon applied to all associated Eastern Rite churches with little regard for theological consideration. While often used disparagingly in the West to emphasize the Church of the East's connections to a heretical doctrine, many writers of the Middle Ages and since have simply used the label descriptively, as a neutral and conventional term for the church. Other names for the church include "Persian Church", "Syriac" or "Syrian" (often distinguished as East Syriac/Syrian), and "Assyrian".

In modern times some scholars have sought to avoid the Nestorian label, preferring "Church of the East" or one of the other alternatives. This is due both to the term's derogatory connotations, and because it implies a stronger connection to Nestorian doctrine than may have historically existed. As Wilhelm Baum and Dietmar W. Winkler said, "Nestorius himself was no Nestorian" in terms of doctrine. Even from the beginning, not all churches called "Nestorian" adhered to the Nestorian doctrine; in China, it has been noted that none of the various sources for the local Nestorian church refer to Christ as having two natures. As such, in 2006 an academic conference changed its name from "Research on Nestorianism in China", explaining in the Preface, "...it was decided not to keep the term "Nestorianism" in the title of the future conferences and the present book, but to use the term Church of the East, which is correct and wide enough to cover the whole field of the research."

The 2000 work, The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318–1913, offers an explanation in the first chapter:

The terminology used in this study deserves a word of explanation. Until recently the Church of the East was usually called the 'Nestorian' church, and East Syrian Christians were either 'Nestorians' or (after the schism of 1552) by the ethnic and geographic misnomer 'Chaldeans'. During the period covered in this study, the word 'Nestorian' was used both as a term of abuse by those who disapproved of the traditional East Syrian theology, as a term of pride by many of its defenders (including Abdisho of Nisibis in 1318, the Mosul patriarch Eliya X Yohannan Marogin in 1672, and the Qudshanis patriarch Shem'on XVII Abraham in 1842), and as a neutral and convenient descriptive term by others. Nowadays it is generally felt that the term carries a stigma, and students of the Church of the East are advised to avoid its use. In this thesis the theologically neutral adjective 'East Syrian' has been used wherever possible, and the term 'traditionalist' to distinguish the non-Catholic branch of the Church of the East after the schism of 1552. The modern term 'Assyrian', often used in the same sense, was unknown for most of the period covered in this study, and has been avoided.

The church was formed in Parthian and Sassanid ruled Assyria (Athura/Assuristan) and many of its original members in Upper Mesopotamia and south eastern Anatolia had since ancient times been described by both themselves and neighbouring peoples as Assyrians, however the church itself did not specifically use the prefix Assyrian until later times.

The Assyrian Church of the East has shunned the "Nestorian" label in recent times. The church's present head, Catholicos-Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV, explicitly rejected the term on the occasion of his consecration in 1976.


The Peshitta, in some cases lightly revised and with missing books added, is the standard Syriac Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition: the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, the Indian Orthodox Church, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Maronite Church, the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, the Syro-Malabar Church and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.

The Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated from the Hebrew, although the date and circumstances of this are not entirely clear. The translators may have been Syriac-speaking Jews, or the early Jewish converts to Christianity. The translation could have been done separately for different Old Testament texts, and the whole work was probably done by the 2nd century AD.

The New Testament of the Peshitta, which originally excluded certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become the standard by the early 5th century.

Parthian and Sassanid periods

Christians were already forming communities in Assyria (Athura) as early as the first century, when it was part of the Parthian Empire. By the third century, the area had been conquered by the Persian Sassanid Empire (becoming the province of Assuristan), and there were significant Christian communities in northern Mesopotamia, Elam, and Fars. The Church of the East traced its origins ultimately to the evangelical activity of the apostles Addai, Mari and Thomas, but leadership and structure was disorganized until the establishment of the diocese of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the bishop of which came to be recognized as Catholicos, or universal leader, of the church. This position received an additional title later, Patriarch of the East.

These early Christian communities in Assyria, Elam and Fars were reinforced in the fourth and fifth centuries by large-scale deportations of Christians from the eastern Roman Empire. However, the Persian Church faced several severe persecutions, notably during the reign of Shapur II (339–79), from the ethnically Persian Zoroastrian majority who accused it of Roman leanings. The church grew considerably during the Sassanid period, but the pressure of persecution led to the Persian Church declaring itself independent of all other Christian churches in 424.

Meanwhile, in the Roman Empire, the Nestorian Schism had led many of Nestorius' supporters to relocate to the Persian Empire. The Persian Church increasingly aligned itself with the Nestorian schismatics, a measure encouraged by the Zoroastrian ruling class. The church became increasingly Nestorian in doctrine over the next decades, furthering the divide between Roman and Nestorian Christendom. In 486 the Metropolitan of Nisibis, Barsauma, publicly accepted Nestorius' mentor, Theodore of Mopsuestia, as a spiritual authority. In 489, when the School of Edessa in Mesopotamia was closed by Byzantine Emperor Zeno for its Nestorian teachings, the school relocated to its original home of Nisibis, becoming again the School of Nisibis, leading to a wave of Nestorian immigration into the Persian Empire. TheChurch of the East patriarch Mar Babai I (497–502) reiterated and expanded upon his predecessors' esteem for Theodore, solidifying the church's adoption of Nestorianism.

Now firmly established in the Persian Empire, with centers in Nisibis, Ctesiphon, and Gundeshapur, and several metropolitan sees, the Church of the East began to branch out beyond the Persian Sassanid Empire. However, through the 6th century the church was frequently beset with internal strife and persecution from the Zoroastrians. The infighting led to a schism, which lasted from 521 until around 539, when the issues were resolved. However, immediately afterward Roman-Persian conflict led to a renewed persecution of the church by the Sassanid King Khosrau I; this ended in 545. The church survived these trials under the guidance of Patriarch Mar Abba I, who had converted to Christianity from Zoroastrianism.

By the end of the 5th century and the middle of the 6th, the area occupied by Nestorians included "all the countries to the east and those immediately to the west of the Euphrates", including Persia, Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Socotra, Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia), Media, Bactria, Hyrcania, and India; and possibly also to places called Calliana, Male, and Sielediva (Ceylon). Beneath the Patriarch in the hierarchy were nine metropolitans, and clergy were recorded among the Huns, in Persarmenia, Media, and the island of Dioscoris in the Indian Ocean.

Nestorian Christianity also flourished in the kingdom of the Lakhmids until the Islamic conquest, particularly after the ruler Al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir officially converted in c. 592.

Ecclesiastical provinces of the Church of the East in 10th century

Islamic rule

After the Sassanid Empire was conquered by Muslim Arabs in 644, the newly established Rashidun Caliphate designated the Church of the East as an official dhimmi minority group headed by the Patriarch of the East. As with all other Christian and Jewish groups given the same status, the Church was restricted within the Caliphate, but also given a degree of protection. Nestorians were not permitted to proselytize or attempt to convert Muslims, but their missionaries were otherwise given a free hand, and they increased missionary efforts farther afield. Missionaries established dioceses in India (the Saint Thomas Christians). They made some advances in Egypt, despite the strong Monophysite presence there, and they entered Central Asia, where they had significant success converting local Tartar tribes. Nestorian missionaries were firmly established in China during the early part of the Tang Dynasty (618–907); the Chinese source known as the Nestorian Stele describes a mission under a proselyte named Alopen as introducing Nestorian Christianity to China in 635. In the 7th century, the Church had grown to have two Nestorian archbishops, and over 20 bishops east of the Iranian border of the Oxus River.

The patriarch Timothy I (780–823), a contemporary of the caliph Harun al-Rashid, took a particularly keen interest in the missionary expansion of the Church of the East. He is known to have consecrated metropolitans for Damascus, for Armenia, for Dailam and Gilan in Azerbaijan, for Rai in Tabaristan, for Sarbaz in Segestan, for the Turks of Central Asia, for China, and possibly also for Tibet. He also detached India from the metropolitan province of Fars and made it a separate metropolitan province, known as India. By the 10th century the Church of the East had a number of dioceses stretching from across the Caliphate's territories to India and China.

Nestorian Christians made substantial contributions to the Islamic Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, particularly in translating the works of the ancient Greek philosophers to Syriac and Arabic. Nestorians made their own contributions to philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch Eutychius, Jabril ibn Bukhtishu) and theology (such as Tatian, Bar Daisan, Babai the Great, Nestorius, Toma bar Yacoub). The personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians such as the long serving Bukhtishu dynasty.


The Church of the East had a vigorous corps of missionaries, who proceeded eastward from their base in Persia, having particular success in India, among the Mongols, and reaching as far as China and Korea.


The Saint Thomas Christian community of Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelism of Thomas the Apostle, had a long connection with the Church of the East. The earliest known organized Christian presence in Kerala dates to the 3rd century, when Nestorian Christian settlers and missionaries from Persia settled in the region. The Saint Thomas Christians traditionally credit the mission of Thomas of Cana, a Nestorian from the Middle East, with the further expansion of their community. From at least the early 4th century, the Patriarch of the Church of the East provided the Saint Thomas Christians with clergy, holy texts, and ecclesiastical infrastructure, and around 650 Patriarch Ishoyahb III solidified the church's jurisdiction in India. In the 8th century Patriarch Timothy I organised the community as the Ecclesiastical Province of India, one of the church's Provinces of the Exterior. After this point the Province of India was headed by a metropolitan bishop, provided from Persia, who oversaw a varying number of bishops as well as a native Archdeacon, who had authority over the clergy and also wielded a great amount of secular power. The metropolitan see was probably in Cranganore, or (perhaps nominally) in Mylapore, where the shrine of Thomas was located.

In the 12th century Indian Nestorianism engaged the Western imagination in the figure of Prester John, supposedly a Nestorian ruler of India who held the offices of both king and priest. The geographically remote Malabar church survived the decay of the Nestorian hierarchy elsewhere, enduring until the 16th century when the Portuguese arrived in India. The Portuguese at first accepted the Nestorian sect, but by the end of the century they had determined to actively bring the Saint Thomas Christians into full communion with Rome under the Latin Rite. They installed Portuguese bishops over the local sees and made liturgical changes to accord with the Latin practice. In 1599 the Synod of Diamper, overseen by Aleixo de Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, led to a revolt among the Saint Thomas Christians; the majority of them broke with the Catholic Church and vowed never to submit to the Portuguese in the Coonan Cross Oath of 1653. In 1661 Pope Alexander VII responded by sending a delegation of Carmelites headed by Chaldean Catholics to re-establish the East Syrian rites under an Eastern Catholic hierarchy; by the next year, 84 of the 116 communities returned, forming the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. The rest, which became known as the Malankara Church, soon entered into communion with the Syriac Orthodox Church; from the Malankara Church has also come the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.


Christianity reached China by 635, and its relics can still be seen in Chinese cities such as Xi'an. The Nestorian Stele, set up on 7 January 781 at the then-capital of Chang'an, attributes the introduction of Christianity to a mission under a Persian cleric named Alopen in 635, in the reign of Tang Taizong during the Tang Dynasty. The inscription on the Nestorian Stele, whose dating formula mentions the patriarch Hnanishoʿ II (773–80), gives the names of several prominent Christians in China, including the metropolitan Adam, the bishop Yohannan, the 'country-bishops' Yazdbuzid and Sargis and the archdeacons Gigoi of Khumdan (Chang'an) and Gabriel of Sarag (Loyang). The names of around seventy monks are also listed.

The Nestorian Stele, created in 781, describes the introduction of Nestorian Christianity to China

Nestorian Christianity thrived in China for approximately 200 years, but then faced persecution from Emperor Wuzong of Tang (reigned 840–846). He suppressed all foreign religions, including Buddhism and Christianity, causing it to decline sharply in China. A Syrian monk visiting China a few decades later described many churches in ruin. The Church disappeared from China in the early 10th century, coinciding with the collapse of the Tang Dynasty and the tumult of the next years (the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period).

Christianity in China experienced a significant revival during the Mongol-created Yuan Dynasty, established after the Mongols had conquered China in the 13th century. Marco Polo in the 13th century and other medieval Western writers described many Nestorian communities remaining in China and Mongolia; however, they clearly were not as vibrant as they had been during Tang times.

Mongolia and Central Asia

The Church of the East enjoyed a final period of expansion under the Mongols. Several Mongol tribes had already been converted by Nestorian missionaries in the 7th century, and Christianity was therefore a major influence in the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan was a shamanist, but his sons took Christian wives from the powerful Kerait clan, as did their sons in turn. During the rule of Genghis's grandson, the Great Khan Mongke, Nestorian Christianity was the primary religious influence in the Empire, and this also carried over to Mongol-conquered China, during the Yuan Dynasty. It was at this point, in the late 13th century, that the Church of the East reached its greatest geographical extent. But Mongol power was already waning, as the Empire dissolved into civil war, and it reached a turning point in 1295, when Ghazan, the Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate, made a formal conversion to Islam when he took the throne.

Jerusalem and Cyprus

Rabban Bar Sauma had initially conceived of his journey to the West as a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, so it is possible that there was a Nestorian presence in the city ca.1300. There was certainly a recognizable Nestorian presence at the Holy Sepulchre from the 1348 through 1575, as contemporary Franciscan accounts indicate. At Famagusta, Cyprus, a Nestorian community was established just before 1300, and a church was built for them ca.1339.

Schism and later history

Collapse of the exterior provinces

The 'exterior provinces' of the Church of the East, with the important exception of India, collapsed during the second half of the fourteenth century. Although little is known of the circumstances of the demise of the Nestorian dioceses in Central Asia (which may never have fully recovered from the destruction caused by the Mongols a century earlier), it was probably due to a combination of persecution, disease, and isolation.

The blame for the destruction of the Nestorian communities east of northern Iraq has often been thrown upon the Turco-Mongol leader Timur, whose campaigns during the 1390s spread havoc throughout Persia and Central Asia, but in many parts of Central Asia, Christianity had died out decades before Timur's campaigns. The surviving evidence from Central Asia, including a large number of dated graves, indicates that the crisis for the Church of the East occurred in the 1340s rather than the 1390s. Several contemporary observers, including the papal envoy Giovanni de' Marignolli, mention the murder of a Latin bishop in 1339 or 1340 by a Muslim mob in Almaliq, the chief city of Tangut, and the forcible conversion of the city's Christians to Islam.

At the end of the 19th century, tombstones in two East Syrian cemeteries were discovered and dated in Mongolia. They dated from 1342, and several commemorated deaths during a plague in 1338. In China, the last references to Nestorian and Latin Christians date from the 1350s. It is likely that all foreign Christians were expelled from China soon after the revolution of 1368, which replaced the Mongol Yuan dynasty with the xenophobic Ming dynasty.

By the 15th century, Nestorian Christianity was largely confined to the Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian communities of northern Mesopotamia, in and around the rough triangle formed by Mosul and Lakes Van and Urmia, the same general region where the Church of the East had first emerged between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD. Small Nestorian communities were located further west, notably in Jerusalem and Cyprus, but the Malabar Christians of India represented the only significant survival of the once-thriving exterior provinces of the Church of the East.

Schism of 1552

Around the middle of the fifteenth century the patriarch Shemʿon IV Basidi made the patriarchal succession hereditary, normally from uncle to nephew. This practice, which resulted in a shortage of eligible heirs, eventually led to a schism in the Church of the East. The patriarch Shemʿon VII Ishoʿyahb (1539–58) caused great offense at the beginning of his reign by designating his twelve-year-old nephew Khnanishoʿ as his successor, presumably because no older relatives were available. Several years later, probably because Khnanishoʿ had died in the interim, he designated as successor his fifteen-year-old brother Eliya, the future patriarch Eliya VII (1558–91). These appointments, combined with other accusations of impropriety, caused discontent throughout the church, and by 1552 Shemʿon VII Ishoʿyahb had become so unpopular that a group of bishops, principally from the Amid, Sirt and Salmas districts in northern Mesopotamia, chose a new patriarch, electing a monk named Yohannan Sulaqa, the superior of Rabban Hormizd Monastery near the Assyrian town of Alqosh. However, no bishop of metropolitan rank was available to consecrate him, as canonically required. Franciscan missionaries were already at work among the Nestorians, and they persuaded Sulaqa's supporters to legitimize their position by seeking their candidate's consecration by Pope Julius III (1550–5).

Sulaqa went to Rome to put his case in person. At Rome he made a satisfactory Catholic profession of faith and presented a letter, drafted by his supporters in Mosul, which set out his claims to be recognized as patriarch. On April 9, having satisfied the Vatican that he was a good Catholic, Sulaqa was consecrated bishop and archbishop in the basilica of Saint Peter. On April 28 he was recognized as "patriarch of Athura and Mosul" by pope Julius III in the bull Divina disponente clementia and received the pallium from the pope's hands at a secret consistory in the Vatican. These events, which marked the birth of the Chaldean Catholic Church, created a permanent schism in the Church of the East.

Sulaqa was consecrated "patriarch of Athura and Mosul" in Rome in April 1553 and returned to northern Mesopotamia towards the end of the same year. In December 1553 he obtained documents from the Ottoman authorities recognizing him as an independent "Chaldean" patriarch, and in 1554, during a stay of five months in Amid, consecrated five metropolitan bishops (for the dioceses of Gazarta, Hesna d'Kifa, Amid, Mardin and Seert). Shemʿon VII Ishoʿyahb responded by consecrating two more underage members of the patriarchal family as metropolitans for Nisibis and Gazarta. He also won over the governor of ʿAmadiya, who invited Sulaqa to ʿAmadiya, imprisoned him for four months, and put him to death in January 1555.

Sees in Qochanis, Amid, and Alqosh

The connections with Rome loosened up under Shimun VIII Sulaqa's successors, who all used the patriarchal name Shimun. The last patriarch to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the 1600, and the heredity of the office was reintroduced, and thus by 1660 the Church of the East had become divided into two patriarchates, the Eliya line in Alqosh (which comprised those who had not entered in Communion with Rome) and the Shimun line. In 1672 the Patriarch of the Shimun line, Mar Shimun XIII Denha, moved his seat to the Assyrian village of Qochanis in the mountains of Hakkari. In 1692 he formally broke communion with Rome and he allegedly resumed relations with the line at Alqosh.

In the Western regions, a new start for the so called Chaldean Patriarchate began in 1672 when Mar Joseph I, then the metropolitan of Amid, entered in communion with Rome, separating from the Patriarchal see of Alqosh. In 1681 the Holy See granted him the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its patriarch" as leader of the Assyrian people who stayed in communion with Rome, and thus forming the third patriarchate of the Church of the East.

Josephite line of Amid

All Joseph I's successors took the name of Joseph. The life of this patriarchate was difficult: the leadership was continually vexed by traditionalists, while the community struggled under the tax burden imposed by the Ottoman authorities. Nevertheless its influence expanded from the original towns of Amid and Mardin toward the area of Mosul, where they relocated the see.

Mar Elias (Eliya), the Nestorian bishop of the Urmia plain village of Geogtapa, c.1831 .The image comes from Justin Perkins, 'A Residence of Eight Years in Persia among the Nestorians, with Notes of the Mohammedans' (Andover, 1843)

Yohannan Hormizd, the last in the Eliya hereditary line in Alqosh, made a Catholic profession of faith in 1780. He entered full communion with the Roman see in 1804, but he was recognized as Patriarch by the Pope only in 1830. This merged the majority of the Patriarchate of Alqosh with the Josephite line of Amid, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.

The Shimun line of patriarchs at Qochanis, which extended mainly in the Northern mountains, remained independent of the Chaldean Church, and the patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East, now located in Chicago, Illinois, forms the continuation of this line.

20th century

The Assyrian Church of the East faced a further split in 1898, when a bishop and a number of followers from the Urmia area in Iran entered communion with the Russian Orthodox Church, and again in 1964 when some traditionalists responded to ecclesiastical reforms brought on by Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII (1908–1975) by forming the independent Ancient Church of the East.

Today the Assyrian Church has about 170,000 members, mostly living in Iran, Iraq, and Syria. The Patriarchate of the Assyrian Church of the East is in exile in Chicago, and that of the Ancient Church of the East is in Baghdad.

In the Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East in 1994, the two churches recognized the legitimacy and rightness of each other's titles for Mary.

Chaldean Catholic Church

The Chaldean Catholic Church (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ; ʿītha kaldetha qāthuliqetha), is an Eastern Syriac particular church of the Catholic Church, under the Holy See of the Catholicos-Patriarch of Babylon, maintaining full communion with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church. The Chaldean Catholic Church presently comprises an estimated 500,000 people who are ethnic Assyrians indigenous to northern Iraq, and areas bordering it in southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest Iran.

The history of the Chaldean Church is the history of the Church of the East founded in Assyria (Persian ruled Athura) -represented today by at least eleven different churches, including the Assyrian Church of the East, of Assyria (then ruled by the successive Parthian and Sassanid Empires, where it was known by its derivative names of Athura and Assuristan)- between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD. The Assyrian region of northern Mesopotamia was also the birthplace of the Syriac language and Syriac script, both of which remain important within all strands of Syriac Christianity.

It was originally a part of The Assyrian Church of the East before the 1553 consecration of Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa who entered communion with the Roman Catholic Church, when it was renamed The Church of Athura (Assyria) and Mosul, subsequent to this, it was again renamed by Rome in 1683 as The Chaldean Catholic Church, despite none of its Assyrian adherents being connected ethnically or geographically to the long extinct Chaldeans.

After the extensive massacres of Assyrian and other Christians by Tamerlane in around 1400 AD had devastated many Assyrian bishoprics, the Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China, Central Asia, Mongolia and India, was largely reduced to Assyria, its place of origin, and followed by the core of Eastern Aramaic speaking ethnic Assyrians who lived largely in the area of Northern Mesopotamia between Amid (Diyarbakır), Harran and Hakkari in the north to Mosul and Kirkuk in the south, and from Salmas and Urmia in the east to Al-Hassakeh in the west; an area approximately encompassing ancient Assyria.:55 The episcopal see was moved to Alqosh, in the Mosul region, and Patriarch Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) made the office of patriarch hereditary within his own family.

19th century: expansion and disaster

The following years of the Chaldean Church were marked by externally originating violence: in 1838 the monastery of Rabban Hormizd and the town of Alqosh was attacked by the Kurds of Soran and hundreds of Christian Assyrians died and in the 1843 the Kurds started to collect as much money as they could from Assyrian villages, killing those who refused: more than ten thousand Assyrian Christians of all denominations were killed and the icons of the Rabban Hormizd monastery defaced.

In 1846 the Chaldean Church was recognized by the Ottoman Empire as a millet, a distinctive religious community within the Empire, thus obtaining its civic emancipation. The most famous patriarch of the Chaldean Church in the 19th century was Joseph VI Audo who is remembered also for his clashes with Pope Pius IX mainly about his attempts to extend the Chaldean jurisdiction over the Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. This time was a period of expansion for the Chaldean Catholic Church.

In the early 20th century Russian Orthodox missionaries established two dioceses in North Assyria, and many Assyrian leaders believed that the Russian Empire would be more interested in protecting them than the British Empire and the French Empire. Hoping in the support of Russians, World War I and the subsequent Assyrian Genocide was seen as the right time to rebel against the Ottoman Empire, and an Assyrian War of Independence was launched, led by Agha Petros and Malik Khoshaba. On 4 November 1914 the Turkish Enver Pasha announced the Jihad, the holy war, against the Christians. Assyrian forces fought successfully against overwhelming odds in northern Iraq, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran for a time. However the Russian Revolution in 1917, and the collapse of Armenian resistance, left the Assyrians cut off from supplies of food and ammunition, vastly outnumbered, and surrounded. Assyrian territories were overrun by the Ottoman Empire and their Kurdish and Arab allies, and the people forced to flee: most who escaped the massacres and continuation of the Assyrian Genocide died from winter cold or hunger. The disaster struck mainly the regions of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean dioceses in North Assyria (Amid, Siirt and Gazarta) were ruined (the Chaldeans metropolitans Addai Scher of Siirt and Philip Abraham of Gazarta were both killed in 1915).

A further massacre occurred in 1933 at the hands of the Iraqi Army, in the form of the Simele massacre, which resulted in thousands of deaths.

21st century: eparchies around the world

A recent development in the Chaldean Catholic Church has been the creation in 2006 of the Eparchy of Oceania, with the title of 'St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney of the Chaldeans'. This jurisdiction includes the Chaldean Catholic communities of Australia and New Zealand, and the first Bishop, named by Pope Benedict XVI on 21 October 2006, is Archbishop Djibrail (Jibrail) Kassab, until this date, Archbishop of Bassorah in Iraq. There has been a large immigration to the United States particularly to Southeast Michigan. Although the largest population resides in Southeast Michigan, there are populations in parts of California and Arizona as well. Canada in recent years has shown growing communities in both eastern provinces, such as Ontario, and in western Canada, such as Saskatchewan.

In 2008, Mar Bawai Soro of the Assyrian Church of the East and 1,000 Assyrian families were received into full communion with the Chaldean Catholic Church from the Assyrian Church of the East.


The Chaldean Catholic Church uses the East Syrian Rite.

A slight reform of the liturgy was effective since 6 January 2007, and it aimed to unify the many different uses of each parish, to remove centuries-old additions that merely imitated the Roman Rite, and for pastoral reasons. The main elements of variations are: the Anaphora said aloud by the priest, the return to the ancient architecture of the churches, the restoration of the ancient use where the bread and wine are readied before a service begins, and the removal from the Creed of the Filioque clause.

Ancient Church of the East

The Ancient Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܥܬܝܩܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒtā ʿAttīqtā d'Maḏnəḥā, Arabic: كنيسة المشرق القديمة‎), officially the Ancient Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of the East (ܗܝ ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܕܐܫܬܬܐܣܬ ܒܫܢܬܐ) was established in 1964. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon – the Church of the East, one of the oldest Christian churches in Mesopotamia.

The Ancient Church of the East was established as the result of a schism within the Assyrian Church of the East, distinguishing itself by opposition to introduction into the Assyrian Church of the East of the modern Gregorian Calendar in place of the traditional Julian calendar (which differs from the Gregorian by a widening number of days, currently thirteen). The Ancient Church of the East seated itself in Baghdad, headed by a separate Catholicos-Patriarch. The first, Mar Thoma Darmo (1968–1969), was succeeded as Catholicos-Patriarch by Mar Addai II Giwargis in 1970.

The position of Catholicos-Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East remained vacant for the initial four years of the Church (1964-1967). In 1968, the followers of the newly established church elected a rival catholicos-patriarch Mar Thoma Darmo while Mar Shimun XXIII continued as the official head of the Assyrian Church of the East. The elected catholicos-patriarch Mar Thoma Darmo was a native of Mesopotamia, a former Metropolitan of the Assyrian Church of the East in India from 1952 to 1968 based at Thrissur, India. He became the head of the Ancient Church of the East in October 1968 and relocated to Baghdad.

Following Patriarch Mar Thoma Darmo's death in 1969, Mar Addai II was elected to head the Ancient Church of the East in February 1970.

The head of the church is the Patriarch of the Church of the East, who also bears the title of Catholicos, presently Mar Addai II. The Ancient Church of the East has an ordained clergy divided into the three traditional orders of deacon, priest (or presbyter), and bishop. It also has an episcopal polity, meaning it is organized into dioceses, each headed by a bishop and made up of several individual parish communities overseen by priests. Dioceses are organized into provinces under the authority of a metropolitan bishop.


In September 1968 Mar Addai Giwargis was consecrated Metropolitan of Iraq, Mar Aprem Mooken was consecrated Metropolitan of India, and Mar Poulose Poulose was consecrated Bishop of India. These prelates in turn consecrated Mar Thoma Darmo Catholicos-Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East during the first week of October 1968. Mar Thoma Darmo died in September 1969, and Mar Addai Giwargis became Acting Patriarch. Mar Addai Giwargis consecrated two Metropolitans in December 1969, Mar Narsai Toma for Kirkuk, and Mar Toma Eramia for Mosul and Northern Iraq. Mar Addai's jurisdiction now was Baghdad.

In February 1972, Mar Narsai Toma of Kirkuk and Mar Toma Giwargis of Nineveh consecrated Mar Addai Giwargis as Catholicos-Patriarch.

Mar Daniel Yakob, Bishop of Kirkuk for the Assyrian Church of the East was accepted in the Ancient Church of the East, in 1985, to head the North American parishes. In July 1992, Mar Yacoub Daniel was consecrated Bishop for Syria and in June 1993 Mar Emmanuel Elia as Bishop for the Patriarchate of Baghdad. In 1994, Mar Emmanuel Elia shifted his residence and became Bishop of North America (USA and Canada).

Several changes occurred in the church hierarchy during November–December 1995. Mar Aprem Mooken, Mar Pouluse Poulose and the Church in India united with the Assyrian Church of the East. Timothaus Mar Shallita was accepted into the Holy Synod and appointed Metropolitan of Europe, and Mar Yacoub Daniel was elevated to the rank of Metropolitan.

In June 2010, the Ancient Church of the East Synod officially declared that the church will begin starting 2010 to celebrate Christmas on the 25 December of each year according to the Gregorian calendar. From its establishment, the church had continued to celebrate Christmas on January 7 of each year. This move will mean that both the Ancient Church of the East and the Assyrian Church of the East will follow the same calendar. The calendar issue was one of the main reasons the Church of the East had split. Easter will continue to be celebrated according to the Julian calendar.

The Ancient Church of the East acknowledges the traditional lineage of the Patriarchs of the Church of the East from Thoma Shlikha, (Saint Thomas) (c. 33-c. 77) until the schism 1964-1967 and considers itself a true continuation of this lineage.

During the reign of Mar Shimun XXIII, in 1964, a schism appeared in the Assyrian Church of the East causing the establishment of the Ancient Church of the East. The seat of the new church remained vacant for three years before Mar Thoma Darmo was assigned as Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East, while Mar Shimun XXIII continued as the official head of the Assyrian Church of the East.

Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch

The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܬܪܝܨܬ ܫܘܒܚܐ) is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Eastern Mediterranean, with members spread throughout the world. It employs the oldest surviving liturgy in Christianity, the Liturgy of St. James the Apostle, and uses Syriac as its official and liturgical language. The church is led by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. The Syriac Orthodox Church traces its history to one of the first Christian communities in Antioch, described in the Acts of the Apostles (New Testament, Acts 11:26) and established by the Apostle St. Peter in AD 37.

The Church belongs to the Oriental Orthodox family of churches, which has been a distinct church body since the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451 but its roots date back to the first founded church outside Jerusalem in Antioch in AD 37 when and where the followers of Jesus Christ were first called Christians. The precise differences in theology that caused the split, "arose only because of differences in terminology and culture and in the various formulae adopted by different theological schools to express the same matter", according to a joint declaration by the last head of the Syriac Orthodox church, Patriarch Mar Ignatius Zakka I Iwas, and Roman Catholic Pope John Paul II in 1984. However, this view is not held by the Eastern Orthodox Church, one of the participants in the Council of Chalcedon. The Syriac Orthodox Church participates in ecumenical discussions, being a member of the World Council of Churches since 1960, where the last Patriarch Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas served as a president, and a member of the Middle East Council of Churches since 1974.

The Church has twenty-six archdioceses and eleven patriarchal vicariates. In 1959, the Patriarchate was moved to Damascus, modern-day Syria.

Apostolic Succession

The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch claims the status as the most ancient Christian church in the world. According to Saint Luke, "The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch," (New Testament, Acts 11:26). St. Peter and St. Paul the Apostle are regarded as the cofounders of the Patriarchate of Antioch in AD 37, with the former serving as its first bishop and he is considered as the first Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church.

As Jewish Christianity originated at Jerusalem, so Gentile Christianity started at Antioch, then the leading center of the Hellenistic East, with Peter and Paul as its apostles. From Antioch it spread to the various cities and provinces of Syria, among the Hellenistic Syrians as well as among the Hellenistic Jews who, as a result of the great rebellions against the Romans in A.D. 70 and 130, were driven out from Jerusalem and Palestine into Syria.

When St. Peter left Antioch, Evodios and Ignatius presided over the Patriarchate. Because of the prominence of St. Ignatius in the church's history, almost all of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs since 1293 were named Ignatius.

Patriarchate of Antioch

The spiritual care of the Church was vested in the Bishop of Antioch from the earliest years of Christianity. Given the antiquity of the bishopric of Antioch and the importance of the Church in the city of Antioch which was a commercially significant city in the eastern parts of the Roman Empire, the First Council of Nicaea (325) recognized the bishopric as a Patriarchate along with the bishoprics of Rome, Alexandria, and Jerusalem, bestowing authority for the Church of Antioch and All of the East on the Patriarch.

Even though the Synod of Nicaea was convened by the Roman Emperor Constantine, the authority of the ecumenical synod was also accepted by the Church in the Persian Empire which was politically isolated from the Churches in the Roman Empire. Until 498, this Church accepted the spiritual authority of the Patriarch of Antioch. The Church also maintained a smaller non-Chalcedonian church under a Catholicos (Katholikos), known by the title Maphryono, until the 1860s. This Catholicate was canonically transferred to India in 1964 and continues today as an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church with the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch as its head.

The Christological controversies that followed the Council of Chalcedon in 451 resulted in a long struggle for the Patriarchate between those who accepted and those who rejected the Council. In 518, Patriarch Mar Severius was exiled from the city of Antioch and took refuge in Alexandria. On account of many historical upheavals and consequent hardships which the church had to undergo, the Patriarchate was transferred to different monasteries in Mesopotamia for centuries. In the 13th century it was transferred in the Mor Hananyo Monastery (Deir al-Za`faran), in southeastern Turkey near Mardin, where it remained until 1933. Due to an adverse political situation, it was transferred to Homs, Syria and in 1959 was transferred again to Damascus.

The Patriarchate office is now in Bab Tuma, in Damascus, capital of Syria; but the Patriarch resides at the Mar Aphrem Monastery in Ma`arat Sayyidnaya located about twenty five kilometers north of Damascus.

Ecumenical Relations

The Church of Antioch played a prominent role in the first three Synods held at Nicaea (325), Constantinople (381), and Ephesus (431), shaping the formulation and early interpretation of Christian doctrines.

In terms of Christology, the Oriental Orthodox (Non-Chalcedonian) understanding is that Christ is "One Nature—the Logos Incarnate, of the full humanity and full divinity". Just as humans are of their mothers and fathers and not in their mothers and fathers, so too is the nature of Christ according to Oriental Orthodoxy. The Chalcedonian understanding is that Christ is "in two natures, full humanity and full divinity". This is the doctrinal difference which separated the Oriental Orthodox from the rest of Christendom.

By the 20th century the Chalcedonian schism was not seen with the same relevance, and from several meetings between the authorities of Roman Catholicism and the Oriental Orthodoxy, reconciling declarations emerged in the common statement of the Oriental Patriarch (Mar Ignatius Zakka I Iwas) and the Pope (John Paul II) in 1984.

The Syriac Orthodox Church is very active in ecumenical dialogues. It has been a member church of World Council of Churches since 1960 and the Patriarch, Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas is one of the presidents of World Council of Churches. The Syriac Orthodox Church is also actively involved in ecumenical dialogues with the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches. There are common Christological and pastoral agreements with the Catholic Church. It has also been involved in the Middle East Council of Churches since 1974.

Since 1998, the heads of the three Oriental Churches in the Eastern Mediterranean i.e. the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Armenian Apostolic Church (Catholicate of Cilicia, Antelias, Lebanon) meet regularly each year.



Syriac Orthodox clergy and some devout laity follow a regimen of seven prayers a day, in accordance with Psalm 119. According to the Syriac Tradition, an ecclesiastical day starts at sunset:

Evening or Ramsho prayer (Vespers)
Night prayer or Sootoro prayer (Compline)
Midnight or Lilyo prayer (Matins)
Morning or Saphro prayer (Prime or Lauds, 6 a.m.)
Third Hour or tloth sho`in prayer (Terce, 9 a.m.)
Sixth Hour or sheth sho`in prayer (Sext, noon)
Ninth Hour or tsha` sho'in prayer (None, 3 p.m.)


The liturgical service, which is called Holy Qurbono in Syriac Aramaic and means 'Eucharist', is celebrated on Sundays and special occasions. The Holy Eucharist consists of Gospel Reading, Bible Readings, Prayers, and Songs. During the celebration of the Eucharist, priests and deacons put on elaborate vestments which are unique to the Syriac Orthodox Church. Whether in the Eastern Mediterranean, India, Europe, the Americas or Australia, the same vestments are worn by all clergy.

Apart from certain readings, all prayers are sung in the form of chants and melodies. Hundreds of melodies remain and these are preserved in the book known as Beth Gazo. It is the key reference to Syriac Orthodox church music.

Bible in Syriac tradition

Syriac Orthodox Churches use the Peshitta (Syriac: simple, common) as its Bible. The Old Testament books of this Bible were translated from Greek to Syriac between the late 1st century to the early 3rd century AD.

The Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated from the Hebrew, probably in the 2nd century. The New Testament of the Peshitta, which originally excluded certain disputed books, had become the standard by the early 5th century, replacing two early Syriac versions of the gospels.


The Different Ranks of Priesthood in SOC i.e. Patriarch, Catholicos, Metropolitan, Corepiscopos, Priest, Deacon, Laymen.


In the Syriac Orthodox tradition, different ranks among the deacons are specifically assigned with particular duties. The six ranks of diaconate are:

‘Ulmoyo (Faithful), Mawdyono (Confessor of Faith), Mzamrono (Singer), Quroyo (Reader), Afudyaqno (Sub-deacon), Mshamshono (Full Deacon)

Only a full deacon or Masamsono can take the censer during the Divine Liturgy to assist the priest. However, in Malankara Church, because of the lack of deacons, altar assistants who do not have any rank of deaconhood assist the priest. The deacons in Malankara Church are allowed to wear a phiro, or a cap.


The priest is the seventh rank and is the duly one appointed to administer the sacraments. Unlike in the Roman Catholic church, Syriac deacons can marry before ordained as a full priest; however he cannot marry after ordained as priest.There is another honorary rank among the priests that is Corepiscopos who has the privileges of "first among the priests" and are give a chain with cross and specific vestment decorations. Corepiscopos is the highest rank a married man can be elevated in the Syriac Orthodox Church. Any ranks above the Corepiscopos are unmarried.


Episcopos is a word that means "the one who oversees". In the Syriac Orthodox Church, an episcopos is a spiritual ruler of the church. In episcopos too there are different ranks. The highest and the supreme is the Patriarch, who is the "father of fathers". Next to him is the Maphriyono or Catholicos of India who is the head of a division of the Church. Then there are Metropolitans or Archbishops and under them there are Episcopos or Bishops.


The clergy of the Syriac Orthodox Church have unique vestments that are quite different from other Christian denominations. The vestments worn by the clergy vary with their order in the priesthood. The deacons, the priests, the bishops, and the patriarch each have different vestments.

Celebration at a Syriac Orthodox monastery in Mosul, Ottoman Syria, early 20th century

The priest's usual dress is a black robe, but in India, due to the harsh weather, priests usually wear a white robe. However, during prayers in the church, they wear a black robe over the white one. Bishops usually wear a black or a red robe with a red belt. They do not, however, wear a red robe in the presence of the Patriarch who wears a red robe. Bishops visiting a diocese outside their jurisdiction also wear black robes in deference to the bishop of the diocese, who alone wears red robes. Priests also wear phiro, or a cap, which he must wear for all the public prayers. Monks also wear eskimo, a hood. Priests also have ceremonial shoes which are called msone. Without wearing msone, a priest cannot distribute holy Eucharist to the faithful. Then there is a white robe called kutino symbolizing purity (Mormon priests, which are all worthy male members, wear white shirts every sunday symbolizing purity as well. It's the same with Shinto priests.). Hamniko or Stole is worn over this white robe. Then he wears girdle called zenoro and zende meaning sleeves. If the celebrant is a bishop, he wears a masnapto, or turban (Very different from turban worn by Sikh men). A cope called phayno is worn over these vestments. Batrashil, or Pallium, is worn over the Phayno by Bishops (Very similar to Hamnikho worn by priests). An important aspect is that Bishops and Cor-Episcopas have handheld crosses while ordinary priests have none.

Primacy of Saint Peter

The Fathers of the Syriac Orthodox Church tried to give a theological interpretation to the primacy of Saint Peter. They were fully convinced of the unique office of Peter in the primitive Christian community. Ephrem, Aphrahat and Maruthas who were supposed to be the best exponents of the early Syriac tradition unequivocally acknowledge the office of Peter.

Global Presence


It is estimated that the church has about 3,500,000 members globally including around 1,600,000 members in India. There is another orthodox faction in India "Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church", which has about 2,600,000 members, this church is independent and has its own Catholicos in India. There are 800,000 Syriac Orthodox members in Syria and 5,000 in Turkey, 1,750 in Palestine (500 in Jerusalem and 1,250 Bethlehem) (numbers in Iraq are unknown). In Lebanon they number up to 50,000. In the diaspora, there are approximately 80,000 members in the United States, 80,000 in Sweden, 100,000 in Germany, 15,000 in the Netherlands, 200,000 members in Brazil, Switzerland, and Austria and around 1,000,000 in Central America, including a large number of indigenous Mayan converts in Guatemala.

Official Name

Since the church has never been the officially-adopted religion of a modern-day country, a unique name had long been used to distinguish the church from the polity of Syria in most languages besides English. This includes Arabic (the official language of Syria), where the Church has always been known as the "Syriani" church; the term "Syriani" being the same word used to identify the Syriac language in Arabic. The meaning of this term is entirely unique from the term for "Syrian" in Arabic, which is translated as, literally, "Syrian". Being the lone exception up until the year 2000, English identified the church as the "Syrian Orthodox Church"; with "Syrian" being derived from the term "Syrian church" used by English-speaking historians to describe the community in ancient Syria prior to the ecumenical divisions. The confusion between "Syrian" and "Syriac" in English led to some nationalists favoring the term "Syrian Orthodox" and some Assyrians favoring the term "Assyrian Orthodox". However, the term "Syrian Orthodox" failed to distinguish the church as in other languages and the term "Assyrian Orthodox" led to confusion with the Assyrian Church of the East. Hence, in 2000, a Holy Synod ruled that the church should be named after its official liturgical language of Syriac (i.e. Syriac Orthodox Church), as it is in most other languages. The official name of the church in Syriac is pronounced ʿĒdtō Suryōytō Triṣaṯ Šuḇḥō; this name has not changed, nor has it changed in any language other than English. The church is often referred to as Jacobite (after Jacob Baradaeus), but it rejects this name.


The church today has two seminaries, and numerous colleges and other institutions. Among those there are several religious institutions which are noteworthy. Patriarch Aphrem I Barsoum (†1957) established St. Aphrem's Clerical School in 1934 in Zahlé, Lebanon. In 1946 it was moved to Mosul, Iraq, where it provided the Church with a good selection of graduates, the first among them being Patriarch Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas and many other Church leaders. Also the church has an international Christian education centre which is a centre for religious education. In the year 1990 he established the Order of St. Jacob Baradaeus for nuns and renovated St. Aphrem's Clerical building in Atshanneh, Lebanon for the new order.

Jurisdiction of the Patriarchate

Middle East

The Syrian Orthodox Church in the Middle East has several Archdioceses and Patriarchate Vicariates in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, UAE and the Arab States of the Persian Gulf.

The Patriarch of Antioch and All the East, the Supreme Head of the Universal Syrian Orthodox Church His Holiness Ignatius Aphrem II.
Patriarchal Office Director in Damascus Archbishop H.E. Mor Dionysius Jean Kawak.
Patriarchal Secretary in Damascus Archbishop H.E. Mor Timothius Matta AlKhori.
Archbishopric of Jazirah and Euphrates under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Eustathius Matta Roham.
Archbishopric of Aleppo under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Gregorios Yohanna Ibrahim.
Archbishopric of Homs & Hama under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Selwanos Petros AL-nemeh.
Patriarchate Vicariate for the Archdiocese of Damascus under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Ivanius Paulose Al-Souky.

Archbishopric of Mount Lebanon under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Theophilos George Saliba.
Patriarchate Vicariate of Zahle under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Yostinos Boulos Safar.
Archbishopric of Beirut & Benevolent institutions in Lebanon under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Clemis Daniel Malak Kourieh.
The Patriarchal Institutions in Lebanon under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Chrysostoms Michael Shimon.

Archbishopric of Baghdad and Basrah under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Severius Jamil Hawa.
Archbishopric of Mosul, Kirkuk and Kurdistan under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Nicodimus Dawood Sharaf. Served previously by the retired Archbishop but currently Patriarch Advisor H.E. Mor Gregorius Saliba Shamoun.
Archbishopric of St Matthew's "Matta" Monastery under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Timothius Mousa A. Shamani.

Archbishopric of Istanbul and Ankara under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Filüksinos Yusuf Çetin.
Patriarchate Vicariate of Mardin under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Filüksinos Saliba Özmen.
Patriarchate Vicariate of Turabdin under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Timothius Samuel Aktaş.
Archbishopric of Adiyaman under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Gregorius Melki Ürek.

Holy Land
Patriarchate Vicariate of Israel, Palestine and Jordan under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Severios Malke Mourad.

Patriarchate Vicariate of UAE and Arab States of the Persian Gulf under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Bartholomaus Nathanael.

Bethel Suloko Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, Perumbavoor, Kerala

The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, one of the various Saint Thomas Christian churches in India, is an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church, with the Patriarch of Antioch as its supreme head. The local head of the church in Malankara (India) is the Catholicos of India also called Catholicos of the East, currently Baselios Thomas I, ordained by the Patriarch in 2002 and accountable to the Patriarch of Antioch. The headquarters of the church in India is at Puthencruz near Ernakulam in the state of Kerala in South India. Another church, the Indian or Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, is an independent Orthodox church Knanaya Syrian Orthodox Church is an archdiocese under the Syriac Orthodox patriarchate. Unlike most other patriarchal churches abroad, the language of the Syriac Orthodox Divine Liturgy in India is mostly in Malayalam along with Syriac. This is because almost all Syrian Christians in India hail from the State of Kerala, where Malayalam is the mother tongue of the people.


The Syriac Orthodox Church has four Archdioceses and Patriarchate Vicariates in North America, one Archdiocese in Central America and the Caribbean Islands and two Patriarchate Vicariates in South America.

Patriarchate Vicariate of the Eastern USA under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Cyril Aphrem Karim now the Patriarch His Holiness Ignatius Aphrem II.
Patriarchate Vicariate of the Western USA under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Clemis Eugene Kaplan (Kaplan is a very typical Levitic last name. Not by chance it's said that Nestorian churches have Israelite origin & where made to preach the Lost Ten Tribes.).
Malankara Archdiocese of North America under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Titus Yeldho Pathickal.

Patriarchate Vicariate of Canada under the spiritual guidance and direction Archbishop H.E. Mor Athanasius Elia Bahi.

Archdiocese of Central America, the Caribbean Islands and Venezuela under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Yaqub Eduardo Aguirre Oestmann.

Patriarchate Vicariate of Argentina under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Chrysostomos John Ghassali.

Patriarchate Vicariate of Brazil under the spiritual guidance and direction of the Apostolic Nuncio H.E. Mor Theethose Bolous Toza.

The Syriac Orthodox Church in Europe has seven Archdioceses and Patriarchate Vicariates.


Patriarchate Vicariate of Belgium, France and Luxembourg under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Severius Hazail Soumi.

Patriarchate Vicariate of Germany under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Philoxenus Mattias Nayis.
Ecumenical Movement in Germany under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Julius Hanna Aydın.

Patriarchate Vicariate of the Netherlands under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Polycarpus Augin (Eugene) Aydın.

Archbishopric of Sweden and Scandinavia under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Julius Abdulahad Gallo Shabo.
Patriarchate Vicariate of Sweden under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Dioskoros Benyamen Atas.

Patriarchate Vicariate of Switzerland and Austria under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Dionysius Isa Gürbüz.

United Kingdom
Patriarchate Vicariate of the United Kingdom under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Athanasius Toma Dawod.



Patriarchate Vicariate of Australia and New Zealand under the spiritual guidance and direction of Archbishop H.E. Mor Malatius Malki Malki.