martes, 19 de abril de 2016

Anglo-Israelism, Ephraimitism, Two-House Movement... & British Israelism explained 5

Julius Caesar in his commentaries had a brief passage talking about how the Celts kept rabbits for pets -- yet didn't eat them. This would connect to Jewish dietary practices (I believe... I don't think rabbits are "clean" since they chew cud but don't have hooves). Note the next to the last sentence: The interior portion of Britain is inhabited by those of whom they say that it is handed down by tradition that they were born in the island itself: the maritime portion by those who had passed over from the country of the Belgae for the purpose of plunder and making war; almost all of whom are called by the names of those states from which being sprung they went thither, and having waged war, continued there and began to cultivate the lands. The number of the people is countless, and their buildings exceedingly numerous, for the most part very like those of the Gauls: the number of cattle is great. They use either brass or iron rings, determined at a certain weight, as their money. Tin is produced in the midland regions; in the maritime, iron; but the quantity of it is small: they employ brass, which is imported. There, as in Gaul, is timber of every description, except beech and fir. They do not regard it lawful to eat the hare, and the cock, and the goose; they, however, breed them for amusement and pleasure. The climate is more temperate than in Gaul, the colds being less severe.

Would not all those who did not return, both from the ten tribes and the two tribes, be equally lost? It seems to me one might as well talk about the lost twelve tribes as the lost ten tribes.

Kenmare, Kinvarra, Kincasslagh...are Irish place names with the prefix KN like Kanaan.

                                                                 Germanic tribal kingdoms

                        The whole of Belgium was French even before most of modern France

Dan, The Pioneer of Israel

When the 12 tribes of Israel actually took possession of the promised land, the tribe of Dan was allotted its tribal inheritance in the South Western area of that land. Dan was situated west-Northwest of Judah; Dan's territory extended westward to the Mediterranean Sea, and included the busy port of Joppa, next to modern Tel-Aviv (Joshua 19:40-48).

Now the Danites migrated Northwards to Laish, and called the city Dan, after their father, see Judges 18. The northern city Laish, now called Dan, by the tribe of Dan, was about thirty miles inland from the ancient busy port of Tyre. Thus the ancient Danites must of had frequent contacts with the people of Tyre, which was in fact occupied by their brethren the tribe of Asher, see Joshua 19:29. So since their Israelite brothers occupied the land of Tyre, they had access to Tyre at anytime. These people of Tyre were a people of sea trade and navigation, see Ezekiel 27. These people built Tyre and Sidon on the Lebanese coast.

In the 1200's B.C., before Dan went to Laish, in a song commemorating a great Israelite victory, the Judge Deborah lamented that during the battle, the "men of Gilead stayed beyond the Jordan [River], and [asked] why DAN REMAINED IN SHIPS?" (Judges 5:17). The Danites were so preoccupied with the Sea and sea trade that they chose to remain in their ships than help their brethren. So even before the time they went to Laish, the Danites were already engaged in sea-faring activities.

J.C. Gawler quotes from the Chronicles of Ireland and says: "Again (p.123), 'The Danites ruled about two centuries until the arrival of the Milesians, which took place, 1000 years before the Christian era.' Thus the date of the arrival of the FIRST COLONY OF DANAANS WOULD BE 1200 B.C., or 85 years after Deborah and Baraks victory, when we are told Dan had ships...The early connection with Greece, Phoenician and Egypt is constantly alluded throughout the Chronicles [of Ireland] and records of the Irish Dannans" (Dan Pioneer of Israel, pp.30-31, emphasis added). After the first batch of Dannans left for Ireland, the remaining Danites migrated North 30 miles away from Tyre. These Danites that migrated North to Laish are the 3RD BATCH OF DANAANS THAT WENT TO IRELAND. These Danites worshipped Idol gods at that time, and brought them to Ireland, and Gawler points out, "The Psalter at Cashel says that the Tower of Tara [In Ireland] was built for the preservation of the fire of Baal, and was called Bel Theine...and that the mark of Phoenicia and Israel [was] Baal worship" (ibid., p.31).

What route did the first batch of Danaans take? Irish Historian Thomas Moore says that one of the earliest resident peoples of Ireland-the Firbolgs-were dispossessed by the Tuatha de Danaans, "who after sojourning for some time in Greece...proceeded thence to Denmark and Norway" (History of Ireland, vol.1, p.59) Then the Danaans proceeded to Ireland. So we see a time span of about 85 years, after Deborah, the judge of Israel uttered those words about Dan in ships!

                                                                 Dan's Coat of Arms

The word "Tuatha" simply means "tribe"-"Tuatha...Irish history...A 'Tribe' or 'people' in Ireland"' (New English Dictionary on Historical principles, vol.10, pt 1, p.441). The word Dan means Judge in the Hebrew. "Dan [Heb "Judge"] shall Judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel" (Gen 49:16). "It is certainly no coincidence that the Irish Gaelic word Dun or Dunn means Judge..."' (America and Britain in Prophecy, Raymond McNair, p.25, emphasis theirs).

Another Irish Historian Geoffrey Keating mentions the SECOND BATCH of Danites of Judges 18, who were the THIRD BATCH OF DANAANS that went to Ireland AFTER THE MILESIANS, and he says: "...the Danaans were a people of great learning and wealth; they left Greece after a battle with the ASSYRIANS and went to Ireland; and also to Denmark, and called it 'DAN-mares,' Dans' country" (History of Ireland, vol.1, pp.195, 199, emphasis added). When the Assyrians attacked in the 8th century, the Danites of the promised land, left and joined their brothers in Ireland, who already settled there in different waves of immigration. They left to get away from the battle with Assyria.

The Encyclopedia Britannica tells us that the ancestor of the Danaans was "According to late Danish tradition...Juteland [mainland Denmark] was acquired by DAN, THE ANCESTOR OF THE DANES FROM WHERE THEIR NAME DERIVES (under article 'Denmark,' vol.8, 11th edition, emphasis added). Like the Danites of old, they named Denmark after their father Dan.

Testimony of Josephus, the Jewish Historian

Jewish Historian Josephus shows that the Lacedemonian (Spartans of Greece) were actually Danites, and therefore closely related to the Jews. Josephus relates an incredible letter from Sparta to Judah: "
"Jonathan the high priest of the Jewish nation . . . to the ephori and senate and the people of the Lacedemonians, send greeting:

"When in former times an epistle was brought to Onias, who was then our high priest . . . we have discovered that both the Jews and the Lacedemonians are of ONE STOCK, and are derived from the KINDRED OF ABRAHAM... concerning the KINDRED THAT WAS BETWEEN US AND YOU, a copy of which is here subjoined, we both joyfully received the epistle . . . because we were well satisfied about it from the SACRED WRITINGS, yet did not we think fit, first to begin the claim of this RELATION TO YOU, the glory which is now given us by you. It is a long time since this relation of ours to you hath been renewed, and when we, upon holy and festival days offer sacrifices to God, we pray to Him for your preservation and victory . . . . You will, therefore, do well yourselves to write to us, and send us an account of what you stand in need of from us, since we are in all things disposed to act according to your desires...This letter is foursquare: and the seal is an eagle, with a dragon [snake or serpent] in its claws" (Antiquities of the Jews, bk 12 chapter 4 sec 10; XIII, 5, 8, emphasis added).

The Lacedemonians received the Jewish ambassadors carrying the letter kindly and made a decree of friendship and mutual assistance with the Jews, and then sent the letter to their Lacedemonian kinsmen.

In Ancient Mythology, Bryant relates that Stephanus Byzantium shows that Alexander Polyhistor and Claudius Jolaus also speak of a direct relationship or kindship between the Spartan Greeks and the people of Judaea (vol.5, p.51-52, 60).

Dan -- A Serpent's Trail

Jacob prophesied that Dan would be a "Serpent by the way, an adder by the path," (Gen 9:16-17) meaning that he would leave a trail wherever he would go. In the Bible we have seen evidence of this naming everything after their father "Dan," see Joshua 19:47; Judges 18:12, 27-29. When the Danites migrated to Ireland, they left a trail of names throughout Europe. The city of Troy was located at the mouth of the Bosporus DarDANelles. From their they migrated into Europe and left names all over and into DANmark and Norway.

In Hebrew there are no vowels, so the name Dan is written DN, or its Hebrew equivalent. Thus words like Dan, Din, Don, Dun, Den, or Dn, correspond to the name of Dan.

Just west of the Black Sea, ancient geographers designated a region by the name of Moesia, which means the land of the "Moses-ites." These people revered a person whom they called Zal-moxis. "Zal" significes "chief," so this person, "chief Moxis" or "leader Moxis" was actually "chier MOSES," the man of God who led Israel to the promised land, and whom these people remembered as their original leader. The tribe of Dan also passed through this region, and the surrounding territory, leaving its name in Mace-DON-ia, and the Dar-DAN-elles, and to the north by the river DAN-ube. In the territory of Sarmatia (or Samaria, meaning the Israelites), were located the rivers DN-iper, DN-ister, and the DON.

Professor Totten declares: "There is no grander theme upon the scrolls of history than the story of this struggle of the Anglo-Saxons westward. The very streams of Europe mark their resting places, and in the root of nearly all their ancient names (Dan, or Don) recall the sacred stream Jor-dan river of rest-- from whose whose hands, so far away, as exiles, they set out. It was either the little colony of Dan, obeying its tribal proclivity for naming everything it cap- turied (Jud.18:1-29) after their father, or else the mere survival of a word and custom; but, none the less, it serves to TRACE these wanderers LIKE A TRAIL. Hence the Dan-ube, the Dan-ieper, the Dan-iester, the Dan-au, the Daci and Davi, the Dan, the Don, the U-Don, the Eri-don, and the THOUSAND OTHER Dans and Dons of ancient and early geography, down to the Danes in Dan-emerke, or 'Dan's last resting place'" (quoted in Allen, Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, p.263-64).

Denmark, the name of the modern country in Europe north of Germany, means, literally, "Dan's mark." It's people are called "Danes." In fact, because at one time Denmark ruled all the surrounding region, the whole region took its name from them the ScanDINavian peninsula! Clearly, here are remnants of the people of DAN, who migrated westward overland from the Caucasus to their present location in northern Europe!

However, other Danites, who dwelt or abode in ships, and who associated themselves with the sea peoples of Tyre and Sidon, fled westward through the Mediterranean when northern Israel fell. Early Danites fled Egypt migrated through SarDINia, and left their trail along the sea-coasts of the Mediterranean. Thus Dan, who was a "lion's whelp" who would "leap from Bashan," leaped all the way to Ireland, where historians explain that the early settlers were known as the "Tuatha de Danaan" --literally, the "tribe of Dan." The Greeks called them the Danoi, the Romans called them Danaus.

In Ireland, today, we find their customary evidence -- their place names -- in abundance. Such names as Dans-Lough, Dan-Sower, Dan-Monism, Dun-dalke, Dun-drum, Don-egal Bay, Don-egal City, Dun-glow and Lon-don-derry, as well as Din-gle, Dun-garven and Duns-more, which means "MORE DANS." Of course, the most famous Irish ballad of all time is the song, "Danny Boy." It should be plain that the country of Ireland is replete, filled with names which derive from the ancient patriarch of the Hebrews --DAN, the son of Jacob! It should be plain that the ancient Danites settled in Ireland, and most of them dwell in that land, today.

Worldwide Church of God


Derives much from the Adventist tradition, in particular from the Church of God (Seventh Day) an emphasis on Old Testament teachings. The church's doctrines include a denial of the trinity, a literal belief in scripture and observation of three ordinances, baptism by immersion, annual observance of the Lord's supper and foot washing. It observes Jewish festivals and denounces holidays like Christmas and Halloween. It is claimed the Church has a special role to play in the end of the world, and is the church of the last days described in Revelation. The church also contains elements of British Israelism, the idea that the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons were the ancient tribes of Israel, which has often been connected with racialistic ideas about white supremacy.


In the 1920s Herbert W. Armstrong (1892-1986) was an active participant in the Oregon Conference of the Church of God (Seventh Day), which had split from the main church. The Church of God (Seventh Day) is a group of independent Adventist churches, organized congregationally, who descend from those Millerites who although they believed in the Jewish Sabbath refused to accept the validity of Ellen White's prophecies. Otherwise their doctrinal beliefs were similar to the Seventh Day Adventists. In 1931 Armstrong was ordained a minister and he began in 1933 an independent radio ministry which became known as the "Radio Church of God".

Armstrong continued to participate in the virulent debates going on in the Church Of God in the 1930s, supporting the cause of those who wanted a more authoritarian church structure and observance of Jewish feast days. He was also growing interested in the doctrines of British Israelism. By 1937 he cut off further contact with his old church. After World War II he moved his ministry to Pasadena, California where he founded a college in 1947. In the 1960s he began a television ministry and 1968 the church adopted the name Worldwide Church of God and began to gain increasing numbers. By 1974 the Church's journal reached two million readers. But the church began to be plagued by controversy over its ban on divorce and dating of Pentecost. As a result various splinter groups left including one led by Armstrong's son, Garner, who had been involved in a major church scandal. In 1978 the Church was placed in receivership following a lawsuit by ex-members.

This action was ruled constitutionally unfair by the courts and since then the church has continued to expand. In the church total authority over all matters, such as doctrine and appointments, is placed in the hands of the Pastor General, who was Armstrong till his death in 1986. The church distributes millions of pieces of free literature, the main journal being The Plain Truth with a readership of 20 million. Its flagship television programme The World Tomorrow has a world wide audience. All this supported by the tithe offerings of members alone. Unusually the church owns no permanent buildings of worship and services are for members only. Recruitment is done through the church's media presentations. Many details such as its authoritarian power structure have led to bitter attacks from ordinary Protestant churches who label it a cult.

Symbols See Adventists.


Had 89,014 members world-wide and 63,686 in the USA in 1988 (Detroit, 1989, 526). In 1994 there were 2881 members in the UK (UK Christian Handbook, 1996, 280).

Headquarters/Main Center 300 W. Green St., Pasadena, CA 91129, USA

Some Reubenite Symbols & Clans

A crowing-cock in Jewish and general folklore is connected with the sunrise which conforms with the "Sun" or "Rising-sun" symbol of Reuben. 

CLANS OF REUBEN: Chanoch (Hanoch) became the Chauci, who were also known as the Hugo in both Scythia and the west. They became part of the Franks and Saxons. Palui (Phalu) is recalled in the region of Falia (Phalia in Germany) whence the Franks invaded Gaul. Chetsroni (Hezron) became the Chassuari and Istaevones (Sicambri). These peoples all were part of the Franks, who gave their name to France. Carmi: after being exiled was recalled in Carmania in southern Iran, in the Crimea of Scythia, and in the Carini Franks in Gaul. Gog (a clan of Reuben, 1-Chronicles 5:4) gave his name to Gogarene (a region of Iberia in the Caucasus), in the Land of Gog in Scythia north of Tibet, and in the name of the Goths and of the Lost Ten Tribes in popular traditions. Gog was also the name given to the head of a non-Israelite people (Ezekiel 38:2), so some confusion results.

A symbol of the gauls was a cock and later France was represented by the sun. This is also a symbol of Reuben. The fleur - de - lis symbol of France is similar to the flower of the mandrake, another symbol of Reuben. 

From Scythia to Germany to Britain, and Phoenicians in Scandinavia

The Thuringians were in effect Tervingi Goths who migrated from the Black Sea area to Central Germany. This occurred over a period of time but culminated in the 400s CE. They were federated with Warnians (Varni), Anglians (Angli) and Suebians (Nordsuavi), and other groups who evidently migrated with them and shortly afterwards participated in the Anglo-Saxon invasions of England.

Phoenicians in Scandinavia: Ancient Swedish Connections to the Middle East

The Scandinavian bronze age started very suddenly about 1800 BC with a very high culture and the artifacts deteriorated in quality over the centuries. The earlier artifacts are almost identical with similar from the Phoenicians and the pre-hellenic or Achaean culture in Mycaene. This is interpreted as the Phoenicians established trading colonies here and introduced there culture and gods. The god Baal later in Scandinavian mythology known as Balder should have been introduced at that time.


MOST people know enough history to realise that a Celtic people called the Gauls inhabited what is now France, in Roman times. If you have ever read any of the "Asterix" books, about a plucky little Gaulish opponent of the Romans, and the "magic potion" which made him and his colleagues so strong, you will, at least, be aware of this! Seriously, though, the authors of "Asterix" were remarkably clever and they knew a lot about Gaulish and Roman history, so their books should not be dismissed as mere "comic" stories. Have you ever wondered where the Gauls came from? They were not the original inhabitants of France, for the cave paintings discovered in the Dordogne at Lascaux were made by the Stone Age inhabitants. The Gauls were of the late Bronze and Iron Ages, and were immigrants.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica states that the Gauls came south from the Rhine River valley in the 5th century BC and established themselves as far as the Mediterranean coasts. It does not venture to trace them further back than the Rhine. However, there must be some people (like myself!) who need to know how they reached as far as the Rhine, for they surely did not spontaneously generate there.

The Gauls were a branch of the great Celtic race, which settled all over Europe and the British Isles.

Their characteristics were great courage, a fierce love of freedom and individuality, and they produced some magnificent heroes, such as the Gaul, Vercingetorix, and in Britain, Caradoc (Caractacus) and Boudicca (Boadicea). Their individualism was far from an asset sometimes, because their fragmentation into small groups meant that they did not have the central organisation and cohesion to rival that of the centrally disciplined Romans. What they lacked in central organisation, they made up for by their heroism, tenacity, and courage in battle, even when overwhelmingly outnumbered. They were formidable foes for the Romans, and won many a battle. Sadly, eventually they lost the war, and came under Roman domination all over Europe. They began to adopt Roman customs, and to enjoy their luxuries, being gradually displaced by further waves of Germanic tribes, such as the Franks, who settled in modern day France.

The Gauls were among the first people to receive the Gospel after the Ascension of Christ. Very early, from about A.D.35, disciples of "The Way" were landing in southern Gaul in Massilia, which is present-day Marseilles. They travelled around Provence, preaching the Word, and then further afield, following the Rhone Valley and thence to Brittany and other parts of Gaul. From Brittany they went into western Britain.

The Gauls established an eastern colony in Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey, which they called Galatia. In Jesus' time, and that of the Apostles, it was a thriving community and Paul addressed one of his epistles to the Galatians. It has been postulated that he visited Gaul briefly, and may also have intended his epistle for the Gauls of Gallia, or modern day France. Certainly, he visited many Celtic lands.

Few historians trace the Celts and Gauls further back than their supposed "spontaneous generation" in Europe. It is possible, however to trace them to Asia Minor, via the Danube Valley, the Crimea and the Caucasus, and other areas around the Black Sea. The link which historians generally seem to be unable to make is that the Celts and their variously named tribes and sub-races, are first found in the very area into which the captive Ten Tribes of the Northern House of Israel disappeared.

Most people believe that they just evaporated, or became absorbed in the surrounding nations, never to reappear as a people. The last mention of them in the Bible is in II Kings 17:6; In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.

We have to turn to secular history to learn of their fate. Tracing their steps is like the solving of a puzzle, and requires careful comparison of different sources. To follow the trail is hard work, but it is well worth the effort because it proves that what God has revealed in the Bible is true. He has not changed His mind, or gone back on His promises, as many a theologian and even well versed Bible students would have us believe. This serves to deepen and reinforce our faith. One of the historic clues in the Apocrypha which we shall consider is the testimony of Esdras (Ezra). This book, although not in our present Canon, is valuable historically and is a continuation of the Book of Ezra, which is in our Bibles. In II Esdras 13, verses 40 to 46, we read:

Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land in the time of Osea (Hoshea) the king, whom Salmanaser the king of Assyria, led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land But they took counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt. That they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land. And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river. For the Most High then shewed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over. For through that country there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half; and the same region is called Arsareth. Then they dwelt there until the latter time.

The Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, which were added to the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Old Testament. The Jews did not recognise them as part of their Scriptures, considering that they were not inspired as the canonical books are, but this does not detract from their historical importance.

Esdras gives us an insight into the movements of the captive Israelites. Dissatisfied with their lot, they determined to escape from their captivity and they had the opportunity to do so about fifty years after their deportation, for the Assyrian Empire came under attack by the Babylonians, and they obviously needed all their forces to defend themselves against this new threat. The captives would have been the least of their worries!

Esdras tells us that they "entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river..." This means the headwaters of the Euphrates. Herodotus, (the Greek historian of c. 484-425 B.C.), then takes up the story and tells us that some members of the Ten Tribes left exile and moved westwards and northwards into what we know as Armenia, then to a place called Ar-Sareth. There is a river called Sareth to the north-west of the Black Sea. They were later said to have overthrown King Midas of Phrygia. They were known by then as Gimira or Cimmerians, called Kimmeroi by the Greeks. This name is cognate with the Assyrian Khumri, which is the Assyrian name for the captives, meaning "people of Omri". (Omri was a king of the Northern House).

According to the Behistun Rock, discovered by Sir Henry Rawlinson in 1846, the Gimiri were the same people as the Sacae. The inscriptions on the Rock were cut in 516 BC, and it records them in three different languages, Babylonian, Susian and Persian, and thus we get the two different names for the same people. In the Persian and Susian versions the Gimiri are called Sacae, and amongst the twenty-three provinces listed on the Rock is one called Sak. The root Sak is the same as the root of the name of the Scythians, leading us to conclude that they are the same people, living in the same area as the Scythians. Herodotus tells us that the Sacae were known as Scythians by the Persians. Now, the root of Sak is the same name by which Israel was known in the book of Amos: Now therefore hear thou the word of the Lord: Thou sayest, Prophesy not against Israel, and drop not thy word against the house of Isaac. (Amos 7:16)

The House of Isaac is Beth-Saak in Hebrew. The consonants SK are the real root of all the variations, for there were no vowels in ancient written Hebrew.

Herodotus also tells of the Scythians emerging quite suddenly in that same area from which the Ten Tribes had disappeared, only half a century after their deportation.

"Celts" seems to have become a generic term covering all these variously named peoples, such as "Sacae", "Scythians", "Cimmerians", and Gauls.

The origin of the word "Gaul" is most interesting and informative. The Gallic language was a branch of the Celtic languages, usually classed as Continental Celtic. It was an Indo-European language, as may be inferred from just one example, their word rix ,meaning "king" (cf. Vercingetorix), which may be compared to the Latin rex and the Irish ri or righ. This is traced back to a hypothetical Indo-European word re or rege, which is also echoed in the Hindu rajah.

The syllable GL occurs often in Hebrew, with various vowel sounds. As previously mentioned, vowels were not written in ancient Hebrew, therefore words vary a great deal, but the two basic consonants remain the same. We may compare Gilead and Galilee, both of the same origin. The Hebrews who were transported into captivity by the Assyrians and Babylonians referred to themselves as golaor galut, both meaning exiles. The word Celt obviously comes from the same source, for a hard "g" easily becomes a "c". Consider the other Celts of the British Isles, who speak Gaelic even to this day, and who are known as Gaels. The name "Portugal" means Port of the Gaul. Strong's Concordance states that "captivity" can be rendered by gola, galah, and galuwth, the latter being close to "Galatians".

Justin, the Roman historian of the 3rd century AD, stated that the Gauls claimed an origin from Greece. He said that they took possession of those parts where New Carthage stands (Cartagena, Spain) and passed from thence into Gallaecia (Galicia, NW Spain). It is well known that Celtic peoples inhabited these parts, and before this colonies were established by Phoenician and Hebrew mariners who traded extensively in the Mediterranean. There was a large Israelitish element in the Phoenicians, notably of the tribe of Dan. Deborah the prophetess complained that Dan did not take part in the wars between the tribes in the time of the Judges, because they had taken to their ships and were absent from their Palestinian territory.

Gilead abode beyond Jordan: and why did Dan remain in ships? (Judges 5:17)

Dan's territory bordered that of the Phoenicians, so it is not inconceivable that they would have joined with them in sea-faring enterprises. The Phoenicians were credited with establishing Massilia (Marseilles) as one of the oldest ports in the south of France, so there is probably an element of Dan in that area.

Several Apostles addressed these scattered people, including James.

James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting. (James 1:1) and Paul, in Romans 11:1-2, says: I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew.

The later immigrants, the Franks, from whom France takes its name, were called "Fraggoi" by the Greeks. They entered France from the Lower Rhine area, which has preserved the name of Franconia. It has been said that they originated in Phrygia, which was territory near Troy in present day Turkey. They began to settle in France from about the third century A.D. They were a Germanic-speaking people. Although they were probably a mixture of races, it is likely that there was an Israelitish element.

It would also appear that there are descendants of the Trojans in France, for the tribe that founded Paris were the Parisi (the Trojan War was caused by the abduction of Helen by Paris). There is also Troyes, which must have been named for the old homeland of the Parisi. Trojans came to Britain, and founded London, which they called "New Troy", so it is conceivable that others settled in Gaul.
It is well known that the Normans, who settled in northern France, were Vikings from Norway, and they were largely of the tribe of Benjamin, which may be inferred from their heraldry. In Genesis 49:27 we read: Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour his prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil.

This must have meant that the people of Benjamin would be courageous and warlike. What is so significant is that the Normans had the wolf as a symbol and were known as sea-wolves.

Many Kingdom Message writers think that there are members of the tribe of Reuben in France.

Reuben's territory was in Gilead, east of the Jordan River. Here we find the two consonants GL again.
The fourth "brigade" leader of the encampment of Israel in the wilderness was Reuben. This tribe of the sons of Jacob-Israel camped on the southern side of the hollow square, and was joined by the tribes of Simeon and Gad, descendants of Reuben's brother and half brother.

Reuben was the first-born son of Jacob-Israel, and, as such, should have inherited the Birthright. His story is similar to that of Esau, Jacob's brother, who so little cared for his inheritance that he sold it to Jacob for a meal. Reuben did not despise his birthright enough to sell it, but his sin caused him to lose the privilege. Throughout the history of Israel, God has allowed the Birthright to go from the natural heir to the man who would most value it and do His will. Sometimes it is necessary to the fulfilment of God's Plan that a transfer should take place.

Reuben was not completely bad, for he showed concern for his younger brother, Joseph, when the other brothers, jealous that Jacob favored him, conspired to kill him. He pleaded that the boy should not be killed, but left in a pit in the wilderness, where there was some hope that he might be rescued. (Genesis 38:12 - 22).

In spite of his disinheritance, Reuben has played his part in the migrations, and has left his mark on the heraldry of the Israelitish nations, in the same way as those of his brothers' tribes. In Moses' blessing of the tribes (Deuteronomy 33:6) he gave an inkling of God's grace towards the sinner when he said "Let Reuben live and not die". Reuben is mentioned as being among the Israel of God in Revelation 7:5, and the story of the patriarch gives hope of redemption and salvation to sinners, especially those in the present dispensation who have the blessing of the promises and the sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ.

It is possible that the name of the city of Rouen in northern France reflects the settlement of some descendants of Reuben.

We should not be surprised to find all these instances if we are aware of the routes taken by the Ten Tribes in their migrations towards the west, to fuse into the Servant Nation.

They became the western fringe nations of Europe and the British Isles.

Iceland: the tribe of Benjamin

The Icelanders are the descendants of the Israelite tribe of Benjamin.

God's protected favorite

When Moses blessed the 12 tribes of Israel, we read: And of Benjamin he said, The beloved of the LORD shall dwell in safety by him; and the LORD shall cover him all the day long, and he shall dwell between his shoulders. (Deuteronomy 33:12)

Iceland has thus not been invaded since the first Icelandic parliament (the Alting) was formed in 930 AD. The same can hardly be said of any other North-West European people!

The smallest of the tribes of Israel

After the 12th century BC, the tribe of Benjamin was numerically the smallest of the tribes of Israel. The tribe's territory was also one of the smallest, but also one of the most important.

Likewise are the Icelanders one of the smallest North-West European peoples. They must, at least, be the smallest North-West European people with an independent country of their own. (The Faroe Islanders are numerically smaller, but do not have full independence.)

Icelandic men and women of different origins

In 874 AD the Norwegian chief Ingolf�r Arnarson was the first to settle permanently on Iceland. The later Norse settlers were primarily Norwegians, but there were also Danes, Swedes, and Norse-Gaels among them.

Geneticists from Oxford University have shown that the Icelanders, by and large, descend from Norse men and Celtic women. These geneticists write that

Numerous slaves were captured by the Vikings in their raids on the coastlines of the British Isles, and many of the slaves were taken to Iceland. The majority of these slaves seem likely to have been female.

Benjamite men and women of different origins

Like the modern Icelanders, the tribe of Benjamin's men and women also descended from different tribes.

In the 12 th century BC, when the tribe of Benjamin was at war against the rest of the tribes of Israel, all the Benjamite women were killed, and only 600 Benjamite men survived (Judges chap. 19-21). In order that the tribe of Benjamin would be able to survive, the 11 tribes fetched 400 young female virgins in Jabesh-Gilead, and let the Benjamite men take them for wives. Thus the tribe of Benjamin survived (see Judges chap. 21).

When the patriarch Israel blessed his 12 sons, he said of Benjamin: Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil. (Genesis 49:27)

This prophecy was both fulfilled in the tribe of Benjamin in the 12th century BC, and also in the formation of Icelandic people in the 10th century AD, because they are one and the same tribe!

Benjamin and Joseph

The patriarch Benjamin had only one full brother, Joseph. Their mother was Rachel. The other 10 patriarchs had the same father, but different mothers.

Those that study the tribes of Israel almost all agree that Great Britain is of Joseph, and of the Ephraim branch of Joseph in particular. (Ephraim was Joseph's son.)

A Swiss DNA analysis institute which compares the DNA of modern indigenous European peoples with the DNA of antique people has shown that the United Kingdom is 75% Celtic, 13% Germanic [i] , and 12% Viking, while the Irish Republic is 88% Celtic and 12% Viking.

The Icelanders, who, as mentioned above, are of Norse-Celtic ancestry, are thus closely related to the peoples of the British Isles. In fact Iceland seems to be genetically as closely related to the United Kingdom as to Norway (88% Viking and 12% Germanic) and Denmark (60% Viking and 40% Germanic).

Geography of the twelve tribes

When the 12 tribes of Israel lived in the land of Israel, Benjamin's territory was around Jerusalem, which was the main city in Benjamin's territory. Benjamin shared borders with Ephraim, Dan, Judah, and Reuben.

Like Benjamin shared borders with Ephraim, so is one of Iceland's closest neighbours the United Kingdom, which is the tribe of Ephraim. Like Benjamin shared borders with Dan and Judah, so was Iceland a part of the Kingdom of Denmark between 1380 and 1944. Denmark consists of the tribe of Dan through the Danes, and the tribe of Judah through the Jutes.

Benjamin and Dan

Not only were Benjamin and Dan neighbouring tribes, but in the Biblical lists of the tribes there sometimes is a special connection between Benjamin and Dan. When the 12 tribes are listed in the Bible, the tribes which have a common mother are usually listed together, i.e. Joseph & Benjamin, Dan & Naphtali, Gad & Asher, etc. But in some places Dan is mentioned together with Joseph and Benjamin. In Ezekiel's description of the gates of the New Jerusalem, there are three gates on the east side: and three gates; and one gate of Joseph, one gate of Benjamin, one gate of Dan (Ezekiel 48:32)
Here Gad, Asher, and Naphtali are listed separately (Eze. 48:34).

In 1st Chronicles, Dan is again listed along with Joseph and Benjamin, while Naphtali, Gad, and Asher are mentioned separately: These are the sons of Israel; Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun, Dan, Joseph, and Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. (1 Chronicles 2:1-2, my underlining)

This is another Biblical parallel to Iceland's special relationship with Denmark.

Adam Rutherford's Iceland book

Adam Rutherford, a scholar on the tribes of Israel, wrote in May 1937 the book Iceland's Great Inheritance, where he identified the Icelanders as the descendants of the tribe of Benjamin. By calculating 'the seven times', Rutherford calculated that Iceland would gain complete independene around 1941.

The seven times are 2520 years (7 x 360 years) where Israel, after having sinned, was liable to be oppressed by other nations. Rutherford counted 2520 years from the fall of Jerusalem in 603 BC, and arrived at 1918 AD, and 2520 years from the final deportation of Benjamin in 580 BC, and arrived at 1941 AD.

In 1918 Iceland gained independence within a personal union with Denmark.

Adam Rutherford wrote in his book from 1937 (!):

The black clouds of trouble are gathering fast over the nations of Continental Europe and Asia and it is but a short time till the terrible holocaust foretold will be precipitated, but Iceland will be 'the bright spot' on Earth, for the Creator has arranged for Iceland to be free from militarism and from religious controversies in order that this little nation may be a Christian example to the great nations of the World. Through the deliverance of Iceland the Almighty will demonstrate to the World His great love and care over a defenseless nation who worship Him in sincerity and truth.' (Adam Rutherford: Iceland's Great Inheritance, p. 13)

Some prophetic words from 1937! Note that Rutherford actually used the word 'holocaust'!
When Germany occupied Denmark in 1940, the United Kingdom occupied Iceland. In 1941 the British forces were replaced by American troops, within an agreement with the Icelandic Home Rule. In 1944 Iceland completely seceded from Denmark and became an independent republic.

October 2009


Most scholars today dismiss these reports as myths, and condescendingly point to what they consider the lack of solid evidence that these tribes exist today. What of the idea that the peoples of Western Europe and the British Isles are part of the Lost Ten Tribes?

The mystery of the "Lost Ten Tribes" of Israel has intrigued people for centuries. Who are they? Where are they? Even U.S. President Thomas Jefferson, in his instructions to the Lewis and Clark expedition, asked the explorers to look for affinities between the lost tribes and the American Indians of the Great Plains. Syndicated writer Charles Krauthammer, recounting this story in a column marking the 60th anniversary of the state of Israel, noted that Lewis and Clark did not find the lost tribes among the Indians—and then adds his own aside, expressing a common view on the subject: "They aren't anywhere" (Washington Post, May 16, 2008). Krauthammer, like many others, assumes that the "Lost Ten Tribes" simply disappeared into the mists of history.

A few months later, news reports described the Bnei Menashe—a group of people living in India who want to immigrate en masse to Israel, claiming "to descend from the lost tribe of Menasche (Manasseh), one of the ten tribes that were exiled from the land of Israel by the Assyrian empire more than 27 centuries ago." The Bnei Menashe keep the Sabbath, the kosher dietary laws and worship in synagogues (New Jersey Jewish Standard, August 13, 2008).

Over the years, other alleged remnants of the "Lost Ten Tribes" have been reported in remote parts of the world. Most scholars today dismiss these reports as myths, and condescendingly point to what they consider the lack of solid evidence that these tribes exist today. What of the idea that the peoples of Western Europe and the British Isles are part of the Lost Ten Tribes? Professor Tudor Parfitt of the University of London says the notion is "unblessed with even a scintilla of evidence" and reflects the "ignorance" of "poorly educated disciples of the movement" (The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth, pp. 53, 62).

However, the views of Professor Parfitt and his colleagues overlook key biblical clues, and ignore considerable historical evidence that make it possible to discover the identity and modern locations of the tribes of Israel. Few seem to understand that dozens of prophecies related to this important subject are coming alive today!

Though many modern scholars have lost track of the Israelite tribes, the identity and location of the tribes of Israel have not really been lost! Jesus told His disciples to go "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matthew 10:6). The "house of Israel" refers to all twelve tribes of Israel, which descended from the twelve sons of Jacob (Genesis 35:23–26). Both the Bible and history indicate that Christ's disciples carried out their mission. James addressed his epistle to "the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad" (James 1:1). Josephus, a Jew writing in the first century ad, recorded that "the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude" (Antiquities of the Jews, 11:5:2). The phrase "beyond the Euphrates" reveals that the ten tribes were in Parthia—an area south of the Caspian Sea—where the Israelites had gone into captivity centuries earlier. Oxford Professor George Rawlinson noted that the Parthians were part of the Scythians, that their name "Parthi" meant "exiles" and that they had been under the dominion of the Assyrians and the Medes (The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, pp. 19, 26)—a description that fits the Israelites! Parthians heard Peter speak in Jerusalem on Pentecost (Acts 2:9). The early church historian Eusebius (263–339ad) relates that Christ's disciple Andrew went to Scythia, and that Thomas went to Parthia (The History of the Church, 3:1:1). Early traditions also link Bartholomew and Philip with these same areas—which shows that the Apostles knew the location of the Israelite tribes in their day.

Historians connect the Scythians with a people called the Sacae. In his translation of Herodotus' The Histories, Rawlinson connected the Sacae—mentioned in inscriptions that Darius commissioned ca. 500bc on the Behistun Rock in northwestern Iran—"with the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel" (p. 378). In the Apocrypha, the book of 2 Esdras states that (after the fall of the Assyrian empire) "the ten tribes… took this counsel among themselves… [to] go forth into a further country… and they entered into the Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river" (2 Esdras 13:40–45)—they headed north through the gorges to the Crimea. Nineteenth century London historian Sharon Turner wrote, "The emigrating Scythians crossed the Araxes [a river between the Black and Caspian Sea], passed out of Asia, and invading the Kimmerians, suddenly appeared in Europe, in the seventh century before the Christian era" (The History of the Anglo-Saxons, vol. 1, p. 98). Turner also described how the Scythians and a related people, the Kimmerians (Kimbri or Kumri or Cymry), eventually reached Britain, and that "The Welsh, who are their descendants, have always called themselves Cymry" (ibid., p. 34)—indeed, that name is on their postcards today!

Critics are unconvinced; Professor Parfitt says the idea of finding the Lost Ten Tribes among America, Britain and the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic peoples that stem from northwestern Europe is "bizarre" and does not make the "slightest sense" in terms of history (Parfitt, pp. 53, 64). He further asserts that some of the earliest "expressions of an invented Israelite genealogy for the British" come from individuals of questionable reputation and scholarship in the 1600s and 1700s (The Lost Tribes of Israel, pp. 41–61). But this perspective simply ignores important facts of history. For example, the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320ad—the Scottish "Declaration of Independence"—stated that the ancestors of the Scots came from Scythia by way of Spain about 500ad —some 1,200 years after the Assyrian conquest of Samaria in 721bc (see The Story of Celto-Saxon Israel, Bennett, pp. 96–99). 

Gildas, a Briton writing in the early 500s ad, describes the Anglo-Saxon invasion as God's punishment on "these His Israelites"—the Britons (De Excidio Britanniae). The early annals of Ireland call some of the Emerald Isle's first inhabitants the "Tuatha de Danann" (The Story of the Irish Race, MacManus, pp. 2–6; The Flowering of Ireland, Scherman, pp. 51–55), which easily translates as "tribe of Dan"—one of the tribes of Israel. The Tuatha de Danann of Ireland appear to be the same peoples as the Danoi of Greece, who according to local legends came from Egypt around 1500bc—about the time of the Exodus of the Israelites. One of the traits of the tribe of Dan was to rename places where they settled or traveled (Joshua 19:40–48; Judges 18:11–12, 26–29). The Danites were seafaring people (Judges 5:17) who were prophesied to leave their mark in place names: Cyprus was called the Ia-Dnan (Island of Dan), the Danube, the Dardanelles, Danzig and Denmark (see Bennett, pp. 76–79).

Additionally, in the 17th century, Vatican librarian Cardinal Baroneous and Archbishop Ussher of Ireland—one of the greatest scholars of his day—both presented evidence that the Apostles James, Paul, Simon Peter, Simon Zelotes, along with Joseph of Arimathea, preached the gospel in the British Isles (see The Whole Works of James Ussher, vol. 5, chap. 1). This gives further credence to the understanding that the Apostles did heed Jesus' instruction to "go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel."

But why is it important, today, to know the identity and location of the tribes of Israel? Bible prophecies record traits of the tribes of Israel that will become obvious and recognizable "in the last days" (Genesis 49:1). Moses prophesied that the descendants of the Israelites would become utterly corrupt and face difficult times "in the latter days" (Deuteronomy 4:27–30; 28:26–29). Jeremiah warns of a coming period of tribulation and chastisement for sinful Israelite nations that he calls a time of "Jacob's trouble" (Jeremiah 30:1–15). God's servants have the duty to warn His people of dangers that lie ahead (Isaiah 58:1; Amos 3:7). Understanding the location and identity of modern Israelite nations is a key to understanding Bible prophecies about their future, and it helps to target our message as these prophecies come alive today!

America is Manasseh

The mills of God grind slowly but they grind exceedingly sure. God gave Israel a world commission down through the ages, to break every yoke and lift every burden. But the Arnerican or the United States section of Israel broke this law of God by placing yokes on negro men and women and making them slaves. With what result?

When the tribe of Manasseh, USA., were in Canaan, they were in two parts, as divided by Joshua: east of the Jordan and west of the Jordan. It is coincident that, when they were in America, 2500 years later, the Mason-Dixon line divided them again into two parts, North and South.

God raised up Moses to unite and lead the united tribes of Israel out of bondage in Egypt. So again He raised up Abraham Lincoln, man of God, born of Puritan stock from Britain, the great leader of Manasseh to establish peace between the two sections.

When the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, were playing around the public square and Temple of On in the Egyptian city of Memphis they saw the great Pyramid. In the public square in front of the temple stood two obelisks - and there are no other two in the world, like them today. Does it not seem strange that one of these obelisks, several thousand years later, should find its way from Egypt to America; and should be set up in our largest city? This Egyptian obelisk is of rose-red granite and was presented to the City of New York by Ishmael, Khedive of Egypt, in 1877. It was erected in Central Park in 1881, where it stands today, pointing skyward as a wayrnark to all America of the place of origin of our forefather Manasseh, and the starting place of our world-wide wanderings since we left Egypt under Moses. England has the other obelisk.

When America won her Independence they put on their Great Seal the great Pyramid of Gizeh with its capstone missing. This seal was adopted by Congress June 20, 1782. But Manasseh means 'forgetfulness' and the seal was not used until recently.

Our Pilgrim Forefathers were a God-fearing body of men. 'They entered into covenant to walk with God and with one another, in the enjoyment of the Ordinances of God,' according to the Word of God. But finding by experience they could not peaceably enjoy their own liberty in their native country they came to America.

The 'Mayflower' had a rough passage, encountering many gales, but they made land November 9-16, 1620, at Cape Cod. The crew refused to sail down the coast in the teeth of the gales, and the Pilgrims had to land and stay in Massachusetts though their patent was only for Virginia. Had they landed on any other section of the coast than where they did, they could not have survived the winter and the Indians. A plague had struck this section of country two years before and wiped out the Indians, but left in a cave some Indian corn, which the Pilgrims used for seed for the season 1621, as they brought none from England.

In 1621 they secured a patent, granted by the British Council, for New England (the new bull or Engle land). Israel was to settle the coasts and drive the heathen before them. You can see that the heathen were driven out by the plague and the way made possible for them to build homes and become installed peacefully.

As early as 1623 these English-men kept days for fasting, humiliation, and prayer and in 1637 passed an ordinance: 'That it be in the power of the governor to command solemn days of humiliation and prayer,' and their American descendants have eaten the November turkey and cranberry, with or without humiliation and prayer and in many cases have forgotten what their predecessors knew in their souls, namely, that God had been and still was looking after them and 'prospering their undertakings,' as our Great Seal of State with its all-seeing eye declares.

Our Pilgrim forefathers kept the Sabbath as did the British from whom they sprang and the Anglo-Saxons are the nations, and the only nations, who do keep it, by the law of the land as well as by observance of doing no work, etc. At the Paris Exposition in 1889 every nation had their exhibits wide open on the Sabbath but Great Britain and the United States. They closed their sections each Saturday and did not open them until Monday morning.

Israel was to keep the Sabbaths throughout Israel's generations and 'twas a sign between Him and us as to who we are. Every Sabbath of the year the Protestant Episcopal Churches in America repeat frorn their prayer-book the Benediction or Jubilate Deo.

Luke 1:68-75: 'Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people; And hath raised up a mighty salvation for us: in the house of his servant, David; As he spake by the mouth of His Holy Prophets: which have been since the world began; That we should be saved from our enemies and from the hand of all that hate us. To perform the mercy promised to our forefathers: and to remember his covenant; To perform the oath which he sware to our forefathers: Abraham; that he would give us; That we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies: might serve him without fear, In holiness and righteousness before him: all the days of our life.'

If this Book of Common Prayer means what it says - why say we will be saved from all our enemies, which was promised only to Israel - if we are not Israel?

Who have been the people to carry the light, God's laws and commandments and light to the Gentiles, and to the ends of the earth? God's servants, Israel, were to do it. The Anglo-Saxons alone have done it, therefore the Anglo-Saxons are Israel. They have a divine commission and the specifications are interwoven throughout both the Old and New Testaments, that the wise who search the Scriptures may understand. Had the Anglo-Saxons made the job of searching the Scriptures as they were instructed to do, they would be wise on how to deal with all the problems that now afflict the world.

America's stand will be decisive in more ways than one. It is up to us! We have the wealth of the mine, and the forest, the sea, and the fertile earth at our command and we will have to give account of our stewardship; because God has given us His plan to work to, which covers all the details we would require during our life time. It shows how we are to invest and how to spend the talents - golden talents - He put in our way.

The kingdom will be right here on earth. In that day how many of us will wish we had spent the time in clothing the naked and feeding the poor - while our profiteers are getting rich on starving the people?

The church can see the prophecies about Judah and the Jew coming true , but when you ask them, about the Kingdom, Israel, who were ten times as many, where they are, they say, 'Israel is God's church!' Has God's church been the Creator's battle-axe and weapons of war with which He was to smash nations? If so, what nations has the church smashed? Does the church possess the 'gate of his enemies?' If so, what gate? What enemy and where? Has God's church become a nation, a great nation, and a company of nations?

The church sees the Cross of Christ but fails to see that He left His Kingdom on earth to His ten servants, the Ten Tribes of Israel, 'my chosen,' 'my dispersed,' 'my outcasts,' 'my people Israel,' who were to 'occupy' until He comes as foretold by Jesus in Luke 19:11-13.

Therefore, America, let us wake up to our identity, mission, purpose and destiny; return to God's Law and acknowledge Him as our King.

The Modern Tribe of Asher is South Africa, Belgium & Luxemburg

"As we have seen, it was the tribe of Asher which had conquered the region of Tyre and Sidon. If so, the people of Laish must have been Israelites. Therefore the description as a villainous deed, and the explanation that such an act took place because 'in those days there was no king in Israel.' From the biblical narrative we must conclude that the narrow tribal framework existed up until the Israelites began settling in the land, but once they were established there, and settled down, they began to be named after their cities. The Israelites did not give new names to conquered cities, and kept the original names existing before the conquest – Gezer fell, and Gezer was rebuilt, Sidon fell and Sidon was rebuilt, Jaffa fell and Jaffa was rebuilt. David sent out to all the Hittite and Canaanite cities to count the Israelites. Hence in the course of time, an Israelite from Sidon was called a 'Sidonian' after the name of the city. However, since the Canaanites were not entirely destroyed, a Sidonian Canaanite would also be called a Sidonian. The same is true with Tyrians etc 

Germany: A Branch of Israel

Biblical and secular history shows that the Germans are descendants of the lost tribes of Israel. 

Genetics confirm that modern Germans are closely related to Britons, the Dutch, Scandinavians and other peoples of Israelite origin. Several authorities on the tribes of Israel also believe that the Germans are Israelites, and specifically of tribes descended from Jacob's wife Leah.

The lost tribes of Israel trek to Germany and Scandinavia

The Kingdom of Israel, which consisted of the 10 northern tribes of Israel, was conquered by Assyria in several invasions between 745 and 721 BC and deported out of the land of Israel to different regions south of the Caucasus, as it is described in the Bible:

In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. (2 Kings 17:6)

The reason that God let Israel be deported was that they continued to break YHWH's covenant and follow other gods. After the deportation of the Kingdom of Israel (i.e. the 10 Israelite northern tribes) only the southern kingdom of Judah was left in the land of Israel:

Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah only. (2 Kings 17:18)

The Kingdom of Judah was invaded by Babylon in 604 BC and partially deported in 587 BC. Many Judahites are believed not to have returned to Judah, but to have joined the other Israelites in exile.
The Middle Eastern origin of the Nordic and Germanic tribes is well documented by the Icelandic historian Snorri Sturlasson (1178-1241 AD) in The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway (c. 1225 AD). Sturlasson wrote that they under the leadership of a priest-chief Odin had trekked from regions south of the Caucasus mountains called Turkland via Gardarike (Russia) to northern Europe:

On the south side of the mountains which lie outside of all inhabited lands runs a river through Swithiod, which is properly called by the name of Tanais, but was formerly called Tanaquisl, or Vanaquisl, and which falls into the Black Sea. The country of the people on the Vanaquisl was called Vanaland, or Vanaheim; and the river separates the three parts of the world, of which the eastermost part is called Asia, and the westermost Europe. [i]

Swithiod was the Scandinavian name for Scythia, which covered a vast area including all of southern Russia, most of the Ukraine and most of Central Asia. Tanais was the ancient name for the river Don. Sturlasson continues:

There goes a great mountain barrier from north-east to south-west, which divides the Greater Swithiod from other kingdoms. South of this mountain ridge it is not far to Turkland, where Odin had great possessions. In those times the Roman chiefs went wide around in the world, subduing to themselves all people; and on this account many chiefs fled from their domains. But Odin having foreknowledge, and magic-sight, knew that his posterity would come to settle and dwell in the northern half of the world. He therefore set his brothers Ve and Vilje over Asgaard; and he himself, with all the gods and a great many other people, wandered out, first westward to Gardarike, and then south to Saxland. He had many sons; and after having subdued an extensive kingdom in Saxland, he set his sons to rule the country. He himself went northwards to the sea, and took up his abode in an island which is called Odin's Island in Fyn. [ii]

Saxland is Saxony. The mentioned sea is the Baltic Sea. The largest city on Fyn, the third largest Danish island, is Odense (Odinsؔ), a name which means Odin's Island.

The Middle Eastern origin of the Nordic and Germanic tribes has been confirmed by other of the greatest Nordic historians. For example, the famous Danish historian Peter Friderich Suhm (1728-1798) wrote, speaking of the Scandinavians, that the ancestors of ourselves, the Germans and the Celts lived together in Asia Minor [iii].

Concerning the last part of the trek to Northern Europe, Suhm wrote, again speaking of the Scandinavians, that it is reasonable that our fathers have come here via Russia and the eastern part of Poland. When they came to the Baltic Sea and present-day Livonia, they divided themselves into two great multitudes. The one went north, and our fathers descend from them, and the other went west, and became the ancestors of many German peoples [iv].

Snorri Sturlasson and Peter Friderich Suhm did trace the ancestors of the Nordic and Germanic tribes back to the Caucasus region and Turkey, but they did not trace them any further than that. They did not trace them all the way back to the lost tribes of Israel. But in 1723 the French Huguenot Dean Jacques Abbedie (1654-1727), who lived in exile in Germany, the Netherlands and Britain, did so in the book La Triomphe de la Providence et de la Religion:

Unless the Ten Tribes of Israel are flown into the air or sunk into the earth, they must be those ten Gothic tribes that entered Europe in the fifth century, overthrew the Roman Empire, and founded the ten nations of modern Europe. [v]

Four of those Germanic tribes, the Eastern Franks, the Bavarians, Swabians and Saxons, evolved into Germany after the division of Charlemagne's Frankish Empire in the 9th century.

We will now describe these four tribes.

The Franks of the tribe of Reuben

The origins of the modern state of Germany began with the Frankish Empire. The Franks are of Reuben, Jacob's first-born son.

The Franks were a large Germanic tribe which lived around the lower Rhine, the Meuse and Main rivers, in what today is West Middle Germany, parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and northern France. The Franks were united under Clovis in 482 AD. In 486 the Franks defeated the Roman governor Syagrius who ruled northern France. In 507 the Franks defeated the Visigoths and annexed south-west Gaul.

Charlemagne (ruler 768-814) expanded the Kingdom of the Franks. On Christmas 800 AD in Rome, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Frankish Empire by Pope Leo III. Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious inherited the Empire, but after his death and a brief civil war his three sons divided the Empire into three parts in 843:

The Western Frankish Kingdom (or West Francia) which used the Latin Old French tongue and evolved into France.

The Eastern Frankish Kingdom (or East Francia) was given to Louis the German. East Francia retained its Germanic tongues and evolved into Germany, Switzerland, and Austria

Middle Francia which was an artificial creation with no ethnic or historical bonds uniting it. In 873 the northern part was divided between East Francia and West Francia, while the southern part evolved into Burgundy and the medieval Kingdom of Italy.

The preeminence of the Franks among the Germanic tribes and the division of their empire after Charlemagne being crowned Emperor by the pope was a fulfillment of Jacob's words of his first-born son Reuben:

Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power: Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch. (Genesis 49:3-4)

Early in the 10th century East Francia became known as the Kingdom of Germany (regnum Teutonicorum or regnum Teutonicum). The Kingdom of Germany was made up of tribal duchies of the larger Germanic tribes. These tribes each represent an Israelite tribe:

Franconia (Reuben), Bavaria (Simeon), Swabia (including Alemannia) (Levi) & Saxony (Judah).

Above: The tribal duchies which made up Germany under Henry I the Fowler 919-936: Franconia (Reuben), Saxony (Judah), Swabia (Levi), Bavaria (Simeon) and Lorraine (not a tribal duchy).

Between the 10th and 13th century the German tribal duchies dissolved into regions ruled by families (nobility). But even today the difference between the German tribes can be seen in both the German dialects and the political division of the German Bundeslander (Federal states).

Bavarians and Austrians of the tribe of Simeon

The Bavarians and Austrians speak a High German group of dialects called Austro-Bavarian. The Austrians are historically a branch of the Bavarians.

In 16-15 BC the Roman Empire annexed areas where the Celtic tribe the Boii lived and turned them into the provinces Retia (roughly corresponding to Bavaria) and Noricum (roughly corresponding to Austria). The Celtic Boii and several Germanic tribes amalgamated into the Bavarians who, like Bohemia, have their name from the Celtic Boii.

After the collapse of the Roman Empire the Bavarians came under the domination of the Franks. The Franks used the Bavarians as a buffer zone from peoples from the east, such as Slavs and Avars. 

Around 550 AD the Bavarians were put under a duke who acted as governor under the King of the Franks. Under Theodo Duke of Bavaria (625-716 AD) the Bavarians achieved de facto independence from the Franks, but under the Frankish King Charles Martel (ruler 714-741) the Bavarians were again laid under the King of the Franks.

Already under Theodo the bulk of the Bavarians professed Christianity.

In 843 AD the Frankish Empire was divided and Bavaria was one of the territories given to Louis (Ludwig) the German King of the East Franks. Bavaria continued being a defense against invading peoples from the east, and in 907 AD almost the whole Bavarian tribe is said to have perished in the Battle of Pressburg (today Bratislava, capital of the Slovak Republic) against the attacking Hungarians.

In 745 AD, while Bavaria was under the Franks, Odilo Duke of Bavaria subdued the Slavonic principality of Carinthia (roughly corresponding to modern Austria). In 899 AD Carinthia was turned into a mark under the East Francia.

Simeon's territory at time of the Old Testament and today

In the time of the Old Testament the tribe of Simeon was the Israelite tribe which lived the farthest to the south. Likewise Bavaria and Austria are today the most southern of the Germanic tribes in Europe.

Simeon'cs territory in the time of the Old Testament was actually a territory within Judah's territory:
Out of the portion of the children of Judah was the inheritance of the children of Simeon: for the part of the children of Judah was too much for them: therefore the children of Simeon had their inheritance within the inheritance of them. (Joshua 19:9)

That Simeon lived in Judah's territory is fulfilled in the fact that Bavaria is a part of Germany. Today in the Federal Republic of Germany Bavaria has more independence than the other German Bundeslander. The official name for Bavaria is, for example, the Freestate of Bavaria. The ruling Conservative party in Germany is actually divided into two parties: The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) which represents all of Germany except Bavaria, and the Bavarian branch which is called the Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU) which only represents Bavaria.

Swabians, Alemannians and Swiss Germans of the tribe of Levi

Swabian and Alemannic is a group of High German dialects which are spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, most of Baden-Württemberg, in eastern Bavaria, in Vorarlberg in Austria, in Liechtenstein, in parts of Alsace in France, and in some parts of the Aoste Valley in north Piedmont in Italy. The Swabians and Alemannians are of the tribe of Levi.

Origins of the Helvetii, Alemannians, and Swabians

In the 1st century BC the Celtic tribe the Helvetii lived on the Swiss plateau. In 15 BC Tiberius I, who later became the 2nd Roman Emperor, and his brother Drusus conquered the Alps and integrated them into the Roman Empire. The area occupied by the Helvetii first became part of the Roman province Gallia Belgica, and later a part of the province Germania Superior, while the eastern part of Switzerland became a part of the Roman province Retia.

From the 4th century AD the western part of Switzerland was under the Germanic tribe the Burgundians who app. 300 AD had trekked from the Danish island Bornholm (originally Burgunderholm, meaning The Burgundians' Island). Burgundy eventually became French-speaking.
In the 5th century the Germanic tribe the Alemanni settled on the Swiss plateau, and in the 8th century in the valley of the Alps. The Alemanni formed Alemannia which co-existed with Burgundy.

The Germanic tribe the Suebi soon settled and became a part of the Alemannic confederacy. The Suebi had trekked from what today is Mecklenburg-Vorpommern by the Baltic Sea, which the Romans originally called Mare Suebicum (The Swabian Sea). Alemannia and Swabia retained their Germanic dialects.

The Alemannians and Swabians under the Franks

Around 496 AD the Frankish King Clovis I defeated the Alemannic confederacy in the battle of Tolbiac, and the Alemannians and Swabians came under Frankish rule. Before the battle Clovis had vowed that if he won the battle he would get baptized as a Christian, which he did. In 640 AD the Alemannians revolted against the Frankish rule, and were independent until the middle of the 8th century.

After 718 the Frankish King Charles Martel defeated the Alemannians and annexed their territory, and even made some of the Alemannians wage war against their eastern neighbours the Bavarians. In 730 Charles Martel again had to invade Alemannia to crush an aspiring independence struggle, just two years before he stopped the Muslim armies at the battle of Tours in 732.

The tribal duchy of Swabia (or Alemannia) 911-1268, 1289-1313

When the Frankish Empire was divided in 843 the Alemannians and Swabians were allotted to Louis the German who formed East Francia. The tribal duchy Swabia was called Alemannia interchangeably.

Swabia endured as a tribal duchy until the end of the House of Hohenstaufen in 1268. From 1079 to 1268 the House of Hohenstaufen was, with a few interruptions, dukes of Swabia, and much of this period Holy Roman Emperors as well. In 1289 Swabia came under the Austrian House of Habsburg. In 1313 Swabia disintegrated into numerous smaller states.


In 1291, when Switzerland was a part of the Holy Roman Empire, three cantons formed a federacy which was the beginning of the Confoederatio Helvetia, which today is the Latin official name of the Swiss Confederation which is made up of 26 cantons. By 1460 the Swiss Confederacy controlled most of what today is Switzerland. In the Swabian War of 1499 the Swiss Confederacy defeated Swabia and the House of Habsburg, wherefore the Swiss Confederacy achieved a de facto independence from the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1513 the Swiss Confederacy expanded further south into Italian-speaking areas, but while the Swiss were occupying Milan in 1515 they were defeated by a French-led army. This ended the heroic period of Swiss history. It also put an end to the expansion into Italian areas.

In 1656 the Reformed cantons clashed with the Catholics cantons which resulted in a Catholic victory, but in 1712 the Reformed cantons and Catholic cantons again clashed resulting in a Reformed victory which broke the Catholic hegemony.

Swiss separatism and defense

Switzerland is the European country with the longest history of neutrality, since 1815. In 1992 the Swiss rejected EU membership in a referendum. Only in 2002 did Switzerland become a full member of the United Nations. Switzerland is very neutral compared to other Israelite nations because under the Old Covenant Levi was the only tribe which did not have a territory. Since Levi did not have a territory the tribe would have a tendency to neutrality when being among their brethren.

Levi's inclination to neutrality and fear of God can be seen in Moses' blessing to Levi:

And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one, whom thou didst prove at Massah, and with whom thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah; Who said unto his father and to his mother, I have not seen him; neither did he acknowledge his brethren, nor knew his own children: for they have observed thy word, and kept thy covenant. They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law: they shall put incense before thee, and whole burnt sacrifice upon thine altar. Bless, LORD, his substance, and accept the work of his hands: smite through the loins of them that rise against him and of them that hate him, that they rise not again. (Deuteronomy 33:7-11)

Despite the fact that Switzerland is extremely neutral in politics, the Swiss are very much a people prepared for war. Almost all Swiss men are a part of the Swiss armed forces, and store guns in their homes in case of a foreign invasion. This is also a Levite characteristic because Levi was known for a willingness to take up the sword if it was necessary, as the tribe did after the rest of Israel had danced around the golden calf (Ex. 32), and as Levi the patriarch did in the slaying of the Canaanite city of Shechem (Gen. 34).

Levi, an especially God-fearing tribe

Under the Old Covenant Levi did not have a territorial inheritance because God was their inheritance. The Levite religious zeal is fulfilled especially in the Swiss which have fostered many great Reformers. Some of the Swiss Reformers were:

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), Reformer in Zurich. Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), Reformer in Zurich and ancestor of the English theologian Ethelbert W. Bullinger, the author of Numbers in Scripture (1894). William Farel (1489-1565), Reformer in Geneva. Theodore Beza (1519-1605), Reformer in Geneva. Jean Calvin (1509-1564) was born in France but is famous for his time in Geneva. The Saxon Germans of the tribe of Judah

The Saxons were a large Germanic tribe which settled in Schleswig-Holstein. In the 3rd century AD the Saxons settled in North-West Germany and the north-eastern Netherlands. The original region called Saxony covered what today is Lower Saxony and northern North Rhine Westphalia, but the region was called Lower Saxony when the centre of gravity of the Duchy of Saxony began moving up the Elbe into what today are the federal states of Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony (Upper Saxony). The Saxons are of the tribe of Judah.

Judah and money

Making money and profit is one of the tribe of Judah's trademarks.

When the sons of Israel had decided to kill Joseph, Judah, the natural leader, suggested that they could make a profit by selling him instead:

And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? Come and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content. There then passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph to Egypt. (Genesis 37:26-28, my underlining)

Judah's instinct for making money and profit was fulfilled in the Hanseatic League, which in the Middle Ages was a commercial league of app. 200 primarily north German cities, which gained tremendous economical, but also political and military, power in northern Europe through aggressive trade. Lubeck was the central city of the Hanseatic League, which reached its zenith in the 14th and 15th centuries, where it also had Kontors in London, Brugge, Bergen and Novgorod. Since the beginning of the 16th century the importance of the Hanseatic League gradually faded. The Kontors closed one after one, until the Hanseatic League officially shut itself down in 1862. At that point of time there were only three cities left in the Hanseatic League (Lubeck, Hamburg, and Bremen).

Today nine German cities and three Dutch cities officially call themselves Hanseatic cities (Hansestadt Lubeck, Hansestadt Rostock, etc.).

Judah's instinct for making money and profit was also fulfilled in the German Mark which was known as the most stable European currency. It is also fulfilled in the European Central Bank, which administrates the monetary policy of the 16 countries in the Euro-zone, and which is situated in Frankfurt, Germany.

Jacob's blessing to Judah

Jacob's blessed Judah with the following words:

Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee. Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes: His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk. (Genesis 49:8-12)

That the scepter shall not deport from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come is fulfilled in Jesus Christ who is now spiritual King of the Israelite and non-Israelite Christian nations. This prophecy, however, is also fulfilled in the fact that a large proportion of European nobility has German roots, which points to a part of Germany being Judah.

Henry the Fowler (Heinrich der Finkler) was Duke of Saxony from 912 and became King of the Germany in 936. He is considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state, which until then was known as East Francia. Henry's family, the Ottonian dynasty, named after Henry's son Otto I, and also called the Saxon dynasty, ruled Germany until 1024.

Queen Margrethe II of Denmark is of the House of Glücksburg, which originates in Glücksburg, a small town in Anglia, which today is a part of the German part of Schleswig. Until 1863 Denmark's royal family was of the House of Oldenburg which originated in Schleswig-Holstein.

The British Queen Elizabeth II is of the House of Windsor which originally was called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and originated in duchies in Thuringia and Bavaria. The House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha has ruled Britain since 1901, but during WWI they changed their German-sounding name to the House of Windsor. From 1714 to 1901 Britain was ruled by the House of Hanover, which originated in Hanover in Lower Saxony.

In 1902 the Reverend W.M.H. Milner traced the lineage of the British royal house back to king David in The Royal House of Britain: An Enduring Dynasty.

The camp of Judah

When the Israelites wandered in the wilderness, the tribe of Judah lead the camp of Judah, which included the tribes of Issachar and Zebulun, and was on the east side of the Tabernacle (Numbers 2:3-9).

This is fulfilled in the German Saxons (Judah), the Dutch (Zebulun) and the Frisians (Issachar) living in adjacent territories.

Germany is made up of several tribes descending from Leah, Jacob's wife. The Netherlands' independence from the Holy German-Roman Empire in 1581 (effectually) and 1648 (internationally recognized) can be compared to the birth of Zebulun, Leah sixth son.

DNA of the modern Germans

Through secular and Biblical history the Germans can therefore be traced back to the lost tribes of Israel. But the science of genetics also proves that modern Germans genetically are more or less of the same stock as the Scandinavians, Dutch, British, French and other nations of Israelite ancestry.

The Germans' genetic relationship to ancient peoples

The Swiss DNA testing institute iGENEA has made statistics over how modern European nations are genetically related to ancient peoples of the first millennium AD [vi] . iGENEA got the following results:

iGENEA's DNA statistics show that the Germans genetically are closely related to especially the British and French. The Germans, British and French are all descended primarily from Celts and secondarily from Germanic tribes and/or Vikings.

German Y DNA Haplogroups

Y DNA Haplogroups are the male DNA Haplogroups which are inherited from father to son. Y DNA Haplogroup I1 is associated with the Nordic and Germanic peoples. Hpg I1 is a branch of Hpg I which is found quite frequently in Europe and in a few places in the Middle East. Hpg I1 is associated with the descendants of the Israelites of the Old Testament. (See Y-DNA Haplogroups links Nordic and Germanic people to Arabs and Jews.)

Statistics over the distribution of Y DNA Hpg I1 again show that the Germans are closely related to the Scandinavians, British, and French.

We thus see that the modern Germans are close genetic relatives of the Scandinavians, the Dutch, the British, and other nations of Israelite ancestry.

German language and religion

The Germans are closely linguistically related to Scandinavians, the Dutch and British. German is a part of the Germanic group of languages which include the North Germanic languages (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic and Faroese) and the West Germanic languages (German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian and English).

The Germans are also closely religiously related to the Scandinavians, the Dutch and British because app. half of the Germans are Protestants, like the Scandinavians and most of the Dutch and British. The Reformation even started in Germany when Martin Luther in 1517 nailed the 95 Thesis to the door of the Wittenberg Church.

People who have identified the Germans as Israelites

Many people in the English-speaking world believe that the Anglo-Saxons, Scandinavians, the Dutch and other peoples are descendants of Israelites. But some deny that the Germans are Israelites as well, despite the fact that the Germans are closely related to these peoples historically, genetically, linguistically, culturally, and religiously. We will therefore mention a few people who have identified the Germans as Israelites.

We have already mentioned the French Huguenot Pastor and Dean Jacques (or Jakob or James) Abbedie (1654-1727), who lived in exile in Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. In 1723 Abbedie published the book La Triomphe de la Providence et de la Religion where he wrote:

Unless the Ten Tribes of Israel are flown into the air or sunk into the earth, they must be those ten Gothic tribes that entered Europe in the fifth century, overthrew the Roman Empire, and founded the ten nations of modern Europe. [vii]

In 1840 the British-Irish Protestant John Wilson published Our Israelitish Origin, which was based on his lectures he had held throughout Britain in the previous years. Wilson believed the Germans to be just as much a branch of Israel as the British. For example when he commented on poetry and music, he specifically used the modern Germans as an example of an Israelite people:

In need scarcely be remarked, that both Poetry and Music were greatly cultivated in Israel. These were accomplishments which, it might be expected, would be eminently possessed by a people who were to be peculiarly devoted to the worship of God  the Most High over all the earth: and accordingly, they, especially the Germans, have been remarkable for musical talent, and particularly as to instrumental music; and the genius of their music appears to be very much like that of the Jews. With regard to poetry, in all its varieties, these nations have been remarkable. Poetry was greatly cultivated, even among the operatives, in the cities of Germany. [viii]

Wilson's lectures and his book was the beginning of the British-Israel and Anglo-Israel movements. Many later British-Israelites have denied that the Germans are Israelites, contrary to John Wilson.
The Anglican Bishop J.H. Titcomb of Rangoon, another of the most prominent early Anglo-Israelites, also reckoned the Germans as a branch of Israel like the British. In 1875 Bishop Titcomb wrote that the Israelites spoken of in Ezekiel's vision of the Valley Dry Bones (Ezekiel 37), who one day will be gathered, will be Britons, Frenchmen, Germans, Danes, Scandinavians, etc.:

Assuming this to be the case, therefore which is just what the Anglo-Israel Theorists maintain  we should have a representation of the Teutonic and Keltic races, or, at least, a large portion of them, lying in Britain, Gaul, Germany, Denmark, and Scandinavia, waiting to be collected in one compact and nationalized mass [ix]

In 1926 the Norwegian captain Ole Jørgen Johnsen wrote Israel i de siste dage (Israel in the last days), where he wrote that the Germans were the tribe of Levi, Prussia was Simeon and Austria was Reuben. Concerning Levi being Germany and Moses' blessing to Levi and Simeon, Johnsen wrote:
The first part of the prophecy is about the past of this tribe, to which Moses belonged, and about their service in the wilderness. The last part is about the future, and rehabilitates Levi after he is separated from Simeon the spiritual direction of his seducing brother which is the fallen Prussia. Germany which during the Reformation was Christianity's force on the European continent, with Reformers such as Luther and many other pious men are the descendants of Levi, which was the priestly tribe. 

The name of Levi's eldest son was Gershon. And if they had called themselves Gershonites, then we would have recognized them immediately. Now, however, they are called Germanic peoples. [x]
In 1931 the German Paul Senstius published the book Die Stamme der Israeliten und Germanen (The Israelite and Germanic Tribes) where he stated that the Germanic tribes were the descendants of the Israelite tribes of the Old Testament. Senstius reached much the same conclusions as presented in this study. He believed the Franks to be of Reuben, the Swabians and Alemmanians of Simeon, Bavaria of Levi, and the Jutes and the Alemannic tribe the Juthungen to be of Judah. Senstius also wrote that the name Germanic, Germans, etc. means strangers from Armenia, because the Germanic tribes had trekked to Germany through Armenia. [xi]

One of the best contemporary books about the 12 tribes of Israel is Uncovering the Mysteries of Your Hidden Inheritance (2001) by Robert Alan Balaicius. In this book the Germans are described as one of the Israelite nations on page 98.

In Israel's Tribes Today (2005) Stephen M. Collins writes that the Germans are the Israelite tribe of Gad in the chapter The Tribe of Gad Rising From Defeat to Prominence on p. 218-223.

Dr. Stephen E. Jones is the Pastor of God's Kingdom Ministries, Minnesota, USA, and specializes in prophecy. Dr. Jones identifies Germany as Judah, and writes that Germany in prophecy fulfills the God's prophecies to Judah and fits into Judah's prophetic timeline:

Jacob-Israel had prophesied in Genesis 49:10 and 1 Chron. 5:1, 2 that Judah was called to provide the monarchs for the House of Israel. In ancient times, this was fulfilled through King David, who was of Judah. It also meant that Jesus, the true King, was to come from the tribe of Judah through the line of David. In later history, we find that virtually all the monarchs in Europe are actually German. Even the present British monarchy was imported from Germany in 1714 (King George I). Thus, Germany has been fulfilling the prophecies of Judah for many centuries. It is not surprising, then, to find Germany paying the Cursed Time penalty for Judah in World War II. Likewise, it is not surprising to find the other Israel nations paying the Judged Time penalty for Israel in World War II.

The above mentioned people and the author of this study all identify the Germans as Israelites. Those who identify the Germans as specific tribes do not all reach exactly the same conclusion, but they do identify the Germans as Israelites specifically of the tribes descended from Leah!

ThoR is the ToRah, oDiN is aDoNai

According to SKandinavian legends Thor and Odin were their god, but apparently they were really their deified ancestors. I would even say that oDiN was a DaNite leader that brought SKanDiNavians to their lands from the Land of Israel thru the Caucasus to SKandinavia. How about if Odin is really Adonai or the Lord of Hosts? Thor may have not even been a person but their beloved Israelite Law, the Torah. This is what some scholars believe.

White Caucasian Israelites?

Israelites were white Caucasian fair skined red haired
In principle they all believe that at least some Israelites were of such a description in the same way as some Jews are today. >This does not mean that ALL white caucasians were Israelites or that Israelites were ONLY white caucasians.

Quote from Dr. Harry Ostrer: Blonde genes occur in Middle Eastern groups as well. There is no evidence that white skin and blue eyes originated in northern Europe. That is a Nordic myth. Semitic people had the whole range.


It is widely understood that the ancient Israelites crossed the Red Sea in the fifteenth century bc—which would date the Scots' migration from Greater Scythia to the third century bc! Another name for the Asiatic Scythia was Sarmatia.

From time to time you have one of those moments. I was traveling to Hastings in Kent, listening to BBC Radio 4. My ears could not believe what they were hearing. "From Our Own Correspondent," is a weekly compilation of vignettes by BBC reporters from all over the world. This particular report, "Ossetia's Connection to Scotland," was from Tim Whewell, who covered the August 2008 skirmish between the Georgians and South Ossetians in Asia's Caucasus region. The report began, "When the nights draw in, in the high Caucasus… there is nothing the people like better than to settle down on the settee to watch an old DVD of Braveheart." Why? The Ossetians told Whewell their stories of migrations from their home. He continued, "Centuries ago, possibly during the great migration of the Dark Ages, some of their ancestors went down from the Caucasus and set sail through the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and arrived eventually in a landscape they recognised: Caledonia." He continued, "But the Ossetians are not just like the medieval Scots. As far as they are concerned, they are the Scots. And the Scots are them." Whewell's information from his hardy Caucasian friends is not as far-fetched as some might like us to think. Much of what we learn about the origins of the people of Europe is skewed toward a Greco-Roman bias. What does that mean?SOUTH AFRICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY

Verse 10: "From BEYOND the rivers of Ethiopia My suppliants, even the daughter of My DISPERSED shall bring Mine offering."

Looking carefully at the map I have supplied, the prophet Zephaniah looks south past Palestine, past Egypt, past Ethiopia, past the rivers of Cunene, Cubango. Cuando, Zambezi, etc, etc., right down to Southern Africa - even to South Africa where I live!

Israelites taken captive to the north to lose identity & not return, Jews taken captive to the south to return in part & keep identity

And the Lord calls these "the daughter of My DISPERSED!" As the book of Zephaniah was written in 630 B.C. this could never refer to the House of Judah (the Jews) because they were not dispersed into Babylon until about 26 years later on - 604 B.C. (II Chron. 36:19-21). So this "daughter of My dispersed" could only be the House of Israel (10 Tribes) who were dispersed into Assyria in 721 B.C. (II Kings 17:5-6,18,24) - that is 117 years before Zephaniah Chapter three. So therefore the white people represent some of the House of Israel, and this is confirmed by Verse 13 which calls us a "remnant of Israel"!

Verse 1: "Ho to the land shadowed on both sides, which is BEYOND THE RIVERS OF ETHIOPIA"!

This is identical to the wording and designation of Zephaniah 3:10! - "From BEYOND THE RIVERS OF ETHIOPIA"! In other words this chapter is to people in South Africa!

Verse 2: "That sendeth ambassadors by the sea, even in vessels drawing (or using) water (steamships?) ... whose land the rivers have DIVIDED!"

This is just what the mass of rivers of Central Africa have done! - South Africa has been separated from Ethiopia and North Africa by the Cunene, Cubango, Cuando, Zambesi! etc etc.


Issachar is reflected in the Isle of Man. This Isle has mines of lead, iron, copper, and quarries for building stones and slate. The Coat of Arms, and the Isle of Man flag, both display a three bent legged figure, which is called a triskelion. 

Have you ever heard of the saying, 'having three legs up on the situation.' Neither have I but it sounded good.

 After 1866, the Isle of Man obtained the status of ‘Home Rule’, but the Manx people have made progress in other ways too, for they now enjoy their tax haven status. Perhaps this 'tax haven' status reflects the meaning of Issachar's name, that of just reward.

'Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens [actually saddlebags].' These two saddlebags would be the landmasses of England and Ireland – how fitting a description, since the Isle of Man rests between the two larger Isles. 'Rejoice, Issachar, in thy tents’. While Manx [Issachar’s] people may live anywhere today in the Isles, the area identifying them as a people is the Isle of Man – this is their end-time inheritance. Today, the two ‘sisters’ lay side by side, Leah the land of Ireland, and Rachel the land of England.

'And he [Issachar] saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute.' [Tribute to the UK].

The Isle of Man is part of the geographical British Isles landmass, and is located just off the northwestern coast of mainland England. Although it is not part of the United Kingdom, it is a Crown dependency. The island lies in the Irish Sea, approximately equidistant between England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Isle of Man was part of the Norwegian Kingdom of the Hebrides until the 13th century when it was ceded to Scotland; the Isle came under the British crown in 1765. Current concerns for Issachar/Isle of Man include reviving the almost extinct Manx Gaelic language.

The Jewish & the Lost Israelites

The G-d of Israel claimed that there are only two groups of people who will be restored back into covenant with Him, the Jews of the House of Israel and the Lost Ten Tribes of the House of Israel. Both families, the Jews and the Israelites were scattered across the face of the earth and would become HaShem emissaries incognito sent to elevate the 70 nations of the world, so that even Righteous Gentiles would become part of the covenant. Even those children of Ishmael will be assimilated into the Jewish culture when deep in their hearts they are “safe to save” and willing to live in peace with their brothers, the descendants of Abraham.  Only the G-d of Israel knows who they are.

We are quickly polarizing a world in which there will be only two choices; we are either for the Hebrew Israelites; both now part of the Jews of the house of Judah and the Lost Israelites of the House of Israel or we will be against them. This comes to one sobering conclusion, if you are a descendant of the Lost Ten Tribes of the House of Israel and you still despise your brothers, the Jews, you will be left cohabitating with peoples who will have a genetic hatred to you even though you think you want to be a part of them.

The later migrations of the Lost Israelites included also the Celtics and the Cymric peoples were developed the ancient Israelite Hallstatt and La Tene cultural era in central and northern Europe. They came as the Ghomerians (people of King Omer, father of Ahab) who were known in history as the Sakki-Cimmerians “Israelite” migrations. The later hordes of the Lost Israelite peoples continued to arrive in central to northern Europe as the Germanic tribes of the Anglo-Saxons, the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and the Vandals who traveled under the Black Sea across Anatolia towards European Gaul and sacked the city of Rome twice.

Ruby is considered by Yair Davidy to come from Reuben. Ruby is the name of a red precious gem. In Hebrew it was known as Odem meaning red. The high Priest in the temple Service wore a breast-plate on which were twelve precvious stones. Each stone was ascribed to a particular Israelite Tribe. The Tribe of Reuben had the Ruby (Odem) as its precious stone. The name "Ruby" in English may be derived from Reuben.


There is no ethno-linguistic distinction between Bavarians and Austrians. The territory of Bavaria has changed significantly over German history; in the 19th century the Kingdom of Bavaria acquired substantial territories of Franconia and Swabia, while having to return territories to Austria who had become Bavarian only a few years earlier. Thus, only three of the seven administrative regions of the state of Bavaria are culturally Bavarian: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern), Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern) and the Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz), to the exclusion of Bavarian Franconia (historically inhabited by Franks) and Bavarian Swabia (inhabited by Swabians).

Bavarii or Baiuvarii was the term for a population from the Bohemian Forest area (which had been the territory of the Boii during antiquity) from the 6th century; the name is Latinized from a possible self-designation *Baio-warioz, apparently intended to mean "men of Bohemia". "Bohemia" (Boiohaemum), apparently meaning "Boii home" in a Germanic language, was a term already mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania at the end of the 1st century AD), by which time the Celtic Boii had already long left the area, leaving it to be settled by Suevic Germanic groups in close contact with the Romans, such as the Marcomanni. On the southern side of the river Danube was the Roman controlled province of Raetia.

Bavarians are first mentioned in the mid 6th century, in the foothills north of the Alps, on both sides of the Danube river. It is difficult to distinguish the mobile and mixing groups of the Danube in this period archaeologically. The timing comes after the period when the neighbouring Alamanni (to the east) and Thuringians (to the north) had come under Frankish hegemony, and in Italy the kingdoms of Theoderic and Odoacer had come to and end, creating a new power vacuum in the Alpine region. They seem to have been closely related to the Lombards who were developing as a force to the east of them. Their legal system shows heavy Roman influence, and their unification appears to have been under a Duke installed by the Franks. (Old Bavarian law codes refer to five main lineages.)

The Danubian frontier between the Roman empire and "Germania" had by this time become a region where older populations had been added to significantly by generations of Roman border troops, Germanic clients, and then various "barbarian" peoples from outside the empire, some of whom had been under the hegemony of Attila the Hun. "Elbe Germans", came from the Elbe river to the north, which was under Thuringian rule, and is where the Lombards had also been. But also more northern groups had moved along the Elbe from the direction of the North Sea, as did some Saxons who joined the Lombards, and possibly the Heruls. Also, East Germanic groups such as the Goths had entered the Pannonian region east of the Bavarians in the generations leading up to the empire of Attila. 

These peoples had not only contributed to the Hunnic empire, but also sometimes been settled peacefully as Roman foederati.

Also entering the area, more contemporary with the Bavarians and Lombards, were Slavs and Avars, who particularly settled the Upper Palatinate as well as around Regensburg itself (distr. Großprüfening).

Neighboring the emerging Bavarian people in the 6th to 7th centuries were the Alamanni to the west (with the Lech River as boundary, which remains a dialectal division today), and Thuringians to the north, both dominated to some extent by the Franks as were the Bavarians. (In the late 7th century however, there was a period where Radulf, King of Thuringia rebelled and some independence was returned to these three regions for a while.) Slavs and Avars were settling to the north-east, and Goths and Langobards to the east and south were later displaced by Slavs and Magyars.

Much like was the case in neighboring Alemannia, Bavaria was nominally Christian by virtue of being ruled by Christian dukes from the 6th century, but Christianization of its population was a gradual process lasting throughout the 7th century and into the 8th; Saint Corbinian was sent by Pope Gregory II to minister to duke Grimoald and work towards the evangelization of Bavaria; he became the first bishop of Freising. A Diocese of Laureacum (Lorch) had been in existence since the 4th century, in the 8th century moved to Passau, which became a bridge-head for the Christianization of Austria and Hungary. The Bishopric of Regensburg was founded in 739 by Boniface. The Lex Baiuvariorum was a codex of Germanic law, comprising 23 articles of traditional law recorded in the 740s. Bavaria within the Carolingian Empire was bordering on Swabia in the west, Thuringia in the north, Lombardy in the south and Slavic Carinthia in the east.

The earliest known inhabitants that are mentioned in written sources were the Celts, participating in the widespread La Tène culture, whom the Romans subdued just before the commencement of the Christian era; founding colonies among them and including their land in the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Roman centre of administration for this area was Castra Regina (modern-day Regensburg).

The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman empire. According to Tacitus and Strabo they were Suebian.

It is believed their name derives possibly from the Proto-Germanic forms of "march" ("frontier, border") and "men", *Markōmanniz, which would've been rendered in Latin form as Marcomanni.
The Marcomanni first appear in historical records as confederates of the Suebi of Ariovistus fighting against Julius Caesar in Gaul (modern France), having crossed the Rhine from southern Germany. 

The exact position of their lands at this time is not known. The fact that their name existed before the Romans had territory near the Danube or Rhine raises the question of which border they lived near in order to explain their name. It has been suggested that they may have lived near the conjunction of Rhine and Main river. However the historian Florus reports that Drusus erected a mound of their spoils during his campaign of 12-9 BC, after defeating the Tencteri and Chatti, and before next turning to Cherusci, Suevi, and Sicambri, suggesting that they were not close to any obvious border at the time.

According to the accounts of Tacitus (Germ. 42), Paterculus (2.108), Pliny, and Strabo (vii. p. 290) they eventually moved into the large area previously occupied by the Boii, specifically in a region already called Baiohaemum. This was described as being within the Hercynian forest and was possibly in the region of modern Bohemia, although this is not certain. By 6 BC their king Maroboduus had established a powerful kingdom there that Augustus perceived as a threat to Rome. Before he could act, however, the revolt in Illyria intervened. Eventually Maroboduus was deposed and exiled by Catualda (AD 19). Catualda was in turn deposed by Vibilius of the Hermunduri the same year, and succeeded by the Quadian Vannius. Around 50 AD, Vannius was himself also deposed by Vibilius, in coordination with his nephews Vangio and Sido.

Tacitus, in the late 1st century mentions (Germania I.42) the Marcomanni as being under kings appointed by Rome.

In the 2nd century AD, the Marcomanni entered into a confederation with other peoples including the Quadi, Vandals, and Sarmatians, against the Roman Empire. This was probably driven by movements of larger tribes, like the Goths. According to the historian Eutropius, the forces of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius battled against the Marcomannic confederation for three years at the fortress of Carnuntum in Pannonia. Eutropius compared the war, and Marcus Aurelius' success against the Marcomanni and their allies, to the Punic Wars. The comparison was apt in that this war marked a turning point and had significant Roman defeats; it caused the death of two Praetorian Guard commanders. The war began in 166, when the Marcomanni overwhelmed the defences between Vindobona and Carnuntum, penetrated along the border between the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum, laid waste to Flavia Solva, and could be stopped only shortly before reaching Aquileia on the Adriatic sea. The war lasted until Marcus Aurelius' death in 180. It would prove to be only a limited success for Rome; the Danube river remained as the frontier of the Empire until the final fall of the West.

Later history

The Christianisation of the Marcomanni occurred under their queen Fritigil (mid fourth century), who corresponded with Ambrose of Milan to bring about the conversion.

There is a runic alphabet called the Marcomannic runes, but they are not believed to be related to the Marcomannic people.

After crossing the Pyrenees in 409, a group of Marcomanni, Quadi and Buri, established themselves in the Roman province of Gallaecia (modern Galicia and northern Portugal), where they were considered foederati and founded the Suebi Kingdom of Gallaecia. There, Hermeric swore fealty to the Emperor in 410. Bracara Augusta, the modern city of Braga in Portugal, previously the capital of Roman Gallaecia, now became the capital of the Suebic kingdom.

Archaeological evidence dating from the 5th and 6th centuries points to social and cultural influences from several regions and peoples, such as Alamanni, Lombards, Thuringians, Goths, Bohemian Slavs and the local Romanised population.

According to the narrative traditions collected by Anno, the Bishop of Cologne and some other documents, the Bavarians had come from Armenia, the 'land of Noah's Ark'. Rightly so, but even before they were in Media after being taken captive with their fellow Israelites.

The modern state of Bavaria is subdivided in several districts. These districts form 3 different cultural areas that correspond to former independent states & nacionalities: Bavaria, Swabia & Franconia.
Bavarian Separatism and the Franconian & Swabian Issues.

Bavarian separatism, a long-standing if still rather minor political movement, is finally getting some attention in the global media, thanks to the recent publication of Bayern kann es auch allein (or Bavaria Can Also Go It Alone), a book described by Canada’s Maclean’s as a “191-page polemic covering a range of standard Bavarian complaints about the present German (and European) political order and a paean to the benefits and glories that await an unfettered Free State of Bavaria.” Framing the issue in Canadian terms, the Maclean’s article notes that Bavaria is a bit like a combination of Quebec and Alberta: culturally distinctive from the rest of the country (like Quebec), and also more prosperous and more conservative (like Alberta). The New York Times claims that “Bavarians, who have an independent streak akin to Texans in the United States, can handle marching orders ‘from Berlin or Brussels, but both together is too much…’” (quoting a local source).

The separatist Bavaria Party (Bayernpartei, BP), however, rarely gets as much as one percent of the vote in local elections in recent decades, although in the 1950s it occasionally scored in the double-digits and in 1949 it received over 20 percent of the vote in the Bundestag election. But the European economic crisis, coupled with the large fiscal equalization payments that Bavaria makes to other regions of Germany, could result in a certain resurgence.

The separatist movement, however, faces a distinct challenge in the fact that not all of Bavaria is culturally Bavarian. The Bavarian dialect (which many linguists regard as a separate language) is mostly limited to Altbayern, or Old Bavaria, composed of the Regierungsbezirks (“government districts”) of Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, and Upper Palatinate. In the Napoleonic period, several historically and culturally non-Bavarian districts were appended to the state. These include the three Franconian districts, where the East Franconian dialect is found, and Bavarian Swabia, whose residents traditionally speak a variety of Alemannic German. Few residents of these areas have much use for Bavarian nationalism (or sub-nationalism) in any of its guises.

The actual geographical situation, however, is rather more complicated. As it turns, a few small areas in both Bavarian Franconia and Swabia do belong to Altbayern, as does the Austrian region of Innviertel.

Bavaria is subdivided between Swabia (Levi), Bavaria proper (Simeon), also known as Altbayern, & Franconia (Reuben). Both, the Bavarian & the Swabian flags have standing lions, which might imply that the tribe of Judah is quite present with them too. After all some Two Housers consider Germany to be Judah. Moreover (the same as Paris & Frisian), the name Prussia could derive from Perez, Judah's son.


Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is considered as the unofficial capital of Franconia. People from Franconia do not consider themselves as Bavarian and revendicate their own identity, symbolized by the Franconian rake. The flag is often seen during local festivities.

                                                  Franconia covers three districts (Bezirke).

The flag of Franconia has no official status since there is no autonomous region of Franconia. 

The three northern Bezirke [districts] of Bavaria (Mittelfranken, Oberfranken and Unterfranken) have their own history, distinct from southern Bavaria, and thus some kind of regional identity as Franken (Franconia). Many of the people there do not like the quite centralistic Bavarian government in Munich, some of them even want their own Bundesland Franken ['Federal State of Franconia'].
Not only the French are Reubenites. The Franconians are Reubenites too.
A Great Franconia based on the Franconian region plus the Franconian linguistic areas?

Map showing the areas in Europe where the Franconian languages and dialects are currently spoken. Legend: Light green [Low Franconian languages in the Netherlands, Belgium and France (French Flemish)], Dark green [Low Franconian languages in Germany (Meuse-Rhenish)], Red [West Central German (Central and Rhine Franconian dialects)], Orange [Transitional High Franconian German (East and South Franconian German)]

Low Franconian language area in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and France

                                                       West Central German language area

Franconian (German: Fränkisch; Dutch: Frankisch) is a term for a number of West Germanic languages and dialects possibly derived from the languages and dialects originally spoken by the Franks from their ethnogenesis in the 3rd century AD. The languages that evolved in the northern and eastern lands of Francia included Low Franconian, of which present-day Dutch is the primary member, the West Central German Rhine Franconian and Central Franconian dialects (including Luxembourgish), as well as transitional High Franconian German dialects.

Linguists have different views about whether these languages and dialects have descended from a single Franconian proto-language, also known as Istvaeonic.

The distribution of the primary Germanic dialect groups in Europe in around AD 1: Weser-Rhine Germanic, or Istvaeonic in orange.

The Istvaeones, also called Istaevones, Istriaones, Istriones, Sthraones, and Thracones, were a Germanic tribal grouping. The name Istria is considered to be related to these Istriones. They had many names, but they probably derived their name from the pagan goddess Ishtar, originally worshiped in the Middle East. The Israelites took her with them to their new lands in Europe. That's the origin of Easter's name. The name Thracones probably derives from Thracian & might imply that a group of their fellow Israelites, the Thracians, at least a part of them, joined these nordic Israelites.


Swabia (/ʃweɪbiə/; German: Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany. The name is ultimately derived from the medieval Duchy of Swabia, one of the German stem duchies, representing the territory of Alemannia, whose inhabitants interchangeably were called Alemanni or Suebi.

This territory would include all of the Alemannic German area, but the modern concept of Swabia is more restricted, due to the collapse of the duchy of Swabia in the thirteenth century. Swabia as understood in modern ethnography roughly coincides with the Swabian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire as it stood during the Early Modern period, now divided between the states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg.

Swabians (Schwaben, singular Schwabe) are the natives of Swabia and speakers of Swabian German. Their number was estimated at close to 0.8 million by SIL Ethnologue as of 2006, compared to a total population of 7.5 million in the regions of Tübingen, Stuttgart and Bavarian Swabia.

Today's Swabia within modern Germany. The area shaded in red corresponds to the districts of Tübingen, Stuttgart and Bavarian Swabia, to the exclusion of Main-Tauber-Kreis (Stuttgart), and the inclusion of Calw and Freudenstadt (Northern Black Forest), Rottweil and Tuttlingen (Freiburg). Shown in yellow is Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, situated at the transitional area between the Swabian, Upper Rhenish and Lake Constance dialects within Alemannic. Historic Swabia included also Baden, the Alsace, the German-speaking Swiss and Vorarlberg. Swabia as marked on this map has a total population of close to 8 million (as of 2012), or roughly 10% of total German population.

Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined. However, today it is normally thought of as comprising the former Swabian Circle, or equivalently the former state of Württemberg (with the Prussian Hohenzollern Province), or the modern districts of Tübingen, Stuttgart, and the administrative region of Bavarian Swabia.

In the Middle Ages, the term Swabia indicated a larger area, covering all the lands associated with the Frankish stem duchy of Alamannia stretching from the Vosges Mountains in the west to the broad Lech river in the east: This also included the region of Alsace and the later Margraviate of Baden on both sides of the Upper Rhine Valley, as well as modern German-speaking Switzerland, the Austrian state of Vorarlberg and the principality of Liechtenstein in the south.

The traditional distribution area of Western Upper German ( = Alemannic) dialect features in the nineteenth and twentieth century.

SIL Ethnologue cites an estimate of 819,000 Swabian speakers as of 2006. This corresponds to roughly 10% of the total population of the Swabian region, or roughly 1% of the total population of Germany.

As an ethno-linguistic group, Swabians are closely related to other speakers of Alemannic German, i.e. Badeners, Alsatians, and German-speaking Swiss.

Swabian German is traditionally spoken in the upper Neckar basin (upstream of Heilbronn), along the upper Danube between Tuttlingen and Donauwörth, and on the left bank of the Lech, in an areal centered on the Swabian Alps roughly stretching from Stuttgart to Augsburg.

Many Swabian surnames end with the suffixes -le, -(l)er, -el, -ehl, and -lin, typically from the Middle High German diminutive suffix -elîn (Modern Standard German -lein). Examples would be: Schäuble, Egeler, Rommel, and Gmelin. The popular surname Schwab is derived from this area, meaning literally "Swabian".

Alemannia or Alamannia

Swabians, Alemannians and Swiss Germans of the tribe of Levi.

Alemannic (German: Alemannisch ) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. The name derives from the ancient Germanic alliance of tribes known as the Alamanni ("all men").

Alemannic dialects are spoken by approximately ten million people in eight countries: Switzerland: all German-speaking parts of the country, Germany: center and south of Baden-Württemberg, Swabia district of Bavaria, Austria: Vorarlberg, Reutte District of Tyrol, Liechtenstein: entire country
France: Alsace, Italy: Gressoney, Issime and Rimella, in some other villages almost extinct, Venezuela: Colonia Tovar (Colonia Tovar dialect), United States: Allen County, Indiana by the Amish there and also in their daughter settlements in Indiana and other U.S. states.

Alemannic comprises a dialect continuum, from the Highest Alemannic spoken in the mountainous south to Swabian in the relatively flat north, with more of the characteristics of standard German the farther north one goes.

                                              Dialects & Modern Alamannic Peoples

Some linguists and organisations that differentiate between languages and dialects primarily on the grounds of mutual intelligibility, such as SIL International and UNESCO, describe Alemannic as one of several independent languages. ISO 639-3 distinguishes four languages: gsw (Swiss German), swg (Swabian German), wae (Walser German) and gct (Alemán Coloniero, spoken since 1843 in Venezuela).

At this level, the distinction between a language and a dialect frequently is considered a cultural and political question, in part because linguists have failed to agree on a clear standard. Standard German is used in writing, and orally in formal contexts, throughout the Alemannic-speaking regions (with the exception of Alsace, where French or the Alsatian dialect of Alemannic are used), and Alemannic varieties are generally considered German dialects (more precisely, a dialect group within Upper German) rather than separate languages.

In the 5th century the Germanic tribe the Alemanni settled on the Swiss plateau, and in the 8th century in the valley of the Alps. The Alemanni formed Alemannia which co-existed with Burgundy. The Germanic tribe the Suebi soon settled and became a part of the Alemannic confederacy. The Suebi had trekked from what today is Mecklenburg-Vorpommern by the Baltic Sea, which the Romans originally called Mare Suebicum (The Swabian Sea). Alemannia and Swabia retained their Germanic dialects.

The tribal duchy Swabia was called Alemannia interchangeably.

Swiss Separatism and Defense

Switzerland is the European country with the longest history of neutrality, since 1815. In 1992 the Swiss rejected EU membership in a referendum. Only in 2002 did Switzerland become a full member of the United Nations. Switzerland is very neutral compared to other Israelite nations because under the Old Covenant Levi was the only tribe which did not have a territory. Since Levi did not have a territory the tribe would have a tendency to neutrality when being among their brethren.

Levi’s inclination to neutrality and fear of God can be seen in Moses’ blessing to Levi:

“And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one, whom thou didst prove at Massah, and with whom thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah; Who said unto his father and to his mother, I have not seen him; neither did he acknowledge his brethren, nor knew his own children: for they have observed thy word, and kept thy covenant. They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law: they shall put incense before thee, and whole burnt sacrifice upon thine altar. Bless, LORD, his substance, and accept the work of his hands: smite through the loins of them that rise against him and of them that hate him, that they rise not again.” (Deuteronomy 33:7-11)

Despite the fact that Switzerland is extremely neutral in politics, the Swiss are very much a people prepared for war. Almost all Swiss men are a part of the Swiss armed forces, and store guns in their homes in case of a foreign invasion. This is also a Levite characteristic because Levi was known for a willingness to take up the sword if it was necessary, as the tribe did after the rest of Israel had danced around the golden calf (Ex. 32), and as Levi the patriarch did in the slaying of the Canaanite city of Shechem (Gen. 34).

Levi, an especially God-fearing tribe

Under the Old Covenant Levi did not have a territorial inheritance because God was their inheritance. The Levite religious zeal is fulfilled especially in the Swiss which have fostered many great Reformers. Some of the Swiss Reformers were:

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), Reformer in Zürich. Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), Reformer in Zürich and ancestor of the English theologian Ethelbert W. Bullinger, the author of Numbers in Scripture (1894). William Farel (1489-1565), Reformer in Geneva. Theodore Beza (1519-1605), Reformer in Geneva. Jean Calvin (1509-1564) was born in France but is famous for his time in Geneva.


                  Numerous ethnic names amongst the western Celts, especially in Britain and particularly of Pictish groups in Scotland relate to the Province of  "Karnayim" in  Gilead of  Menasseh, east of the Jordan e.g. Cernunnos (of Britain), Careni, Corinion, Crinan, Cerones, Carnonaco, Cornwealas (of Britain), Cornavi (of Wales), Creone, Carnone, Cerini, Cornabi, Conall Cernach, Cruithen (all probably Pictish groups of Scotland), Carnutes (of Gaul), Coriondi (of Ireland), Corannied (Vandals of Britain), Careotae and Carbone (Agathyrsi-Picts and Khazars of Sarmatia) all derive their name from "Karnayim" of Gilead in Menasseh.

            Khazar fortress & Viking looking ship. Both Khazars & Vikings were fellow Israelites.

Some details of some of  the above names follow: Cernunnos (the horned god) was the god in Britain of the Brigantes. Many Tribes in Britain  had names based on the root CRN meaning Horn in both Hebrew and ancient British:

                 The Picts were called Quritenoi or Quriten or Cruithen or included a people of that name. The Carnutes  (north of the Loire in Gaul) were connected with the Druids whose centre was in Britain: "Each year on a fixed date they hold an assembly on consecrated ground in the territory of the Carnutes, whose land is supposed to be in the very centre of the whole country of Gaul. Those who have disputes to settle come from all over Gaul to this assembly and accept the verdicts and rulings given to them by the Druids" (Julius Caesar, B.G. vi;2).

                  In the southwest of Britain were the Cornwealas of CORNWALL. Ptolemy recalls the Cornavii on the west coast apparently in north Wales. North of the Caledonni in north Scotland Ptolemy mentions the CREONE, CARNONE, CERINI, and CORNABI. The inhabitants of the Orkneys and Hebrides islands off the coast of Scotland were considered descendants of Conall Cernach a fact said to prove their linkage with the Cruthin (Picts) who claimed the same ancestor. Ptolemy places the CORIONDI in Ireland. In Irish Mythology Cuiren was ancestor of a people named Cuirennrige. The Welsh Triads report of the CORANNIED who were assumedly a group composed of Varini-Vandals associated with Angles and Scandinavian groups who collaborated with the Anglo-Saxons in the invasion of Britain. This group eventually congregated in Bernicia (ca. Northumberland) and included Celtic elements which they had absorbed on the Continent in Poland. In Britain they intermerged relatively freely and quickly with the Celtic peoples whom they conquered. Other "Keren" ethnically associated names in Britain included the Careni, Corinion (Cirencester), Crinan, Cerones, and Carnonacao. Ptolemy placed the Careotae and Carbone in north European Sarmatia neighbouring the AGATHYRSI who migrated to Scotland and became the Picts. All of these appellations contain the root -KRN- meaning (as in Cernunnos, the Celtic-British horned god) HORN from the Hebrew KRN (Keren) or QRN. The Prophet Amos inveighed against the northern kingdom of Israel prior to its exile: "Ye which rejoice in a thing of naught [Hebrew: "LO-DEBAR"], which say, Have we not taken to us horns [Hebrew: Karn-ayim] by our own strength?" (Amos 6;13). This verse uses a play on words, "a thing of nought" (Lo Debar) being similar to LADABAR a city in the territory of Gad and Horns (Karn-ayim) being the same as the name as another city in Bashan of Gilead. These were apparently strategic areas and had been regained by king Jeroboam-ii of Israel from the enemy and it was hoped that with their help security could be achieved. Karnayim appears to have become the centre and namesake of an important province. In part of the Israelite land of Gilead east of the Jordan, the Assyrians after exiling the Israelites formed a Province named QERNINI (or Kernini) and this name was derived from the previous Israelite "Karnayim". In Greek Tradition, "KRONOS" had apparently been equated with the Canaanite god "Baal" whose worship many of the Israelites adopted and who was frequently depicted as a two-horned deity. In Classical Mythology, the god KRONOS (cf. KRN") was identified both with the deity and ancestor of ancient Israel and with the ancient ruler and god of Britain.  In their own way some of the pagan Roman savants appear to have recognized a kinship between the so-called "Celts" of Britain and ancient  Israel.

Recorded in the spellings of Kern, Kerne, Kerner, Kernes, and Kearns, this is a surname of multiple national origins. Confusingly it can be German, or English-Cornish, and sometimes Irish. Equally it has multiple meanings and derivations. If German and hence Anglo-Saxon (English) it probably derives from the pre 7th century word "gern" meaning desire, and usually found in the early personal names "Gernwin and Kernwin". However the surname can also be locational from the town of Kern in Germany. If Irish and possibly Cornish, the derivation is from the pre 10th century Gaelic personal name "Ceirin" which translates as "The little black one". As such it was a name given to the first chief of the clan, who was presumably dark haired or of dark complexion. Early examples of the surname recording taken from authentic charters of the medieval period include: Hainrich Kerne of Runstall near Villingen, Germany, in 1255, and Johannes Kerner of Markdorf, in 1276. A family called Kerne have been recorded in Truro, Cornwall, since at least the 16th century, whilst in Ireland the clan were in about the year 1420, in possession of the greater part of the present barony of Costello in County Mayo. An inquisition of 1609 describes them as erenaghs or hereditary holders of church property, of Killaghtee in the diocese of Raphoe, and in the census of 1659 they are also located in County Sligo. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop," often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. It's also found in France. In California it’s a place name.

It's interesting that the Karen, considered as Lost Israelites, from Indochina have almost the same name as the Manassehite name Keren, because the nearby Kukis that regard themselves as Lost Israelites from the tribe of Manasseh. The neighboring Kareni have the very name of a Celtic group considered as a Lost Manassehite. Keren is also a toonym found in Eritrea, an area of Lost Israelites or next to them.

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